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    Untitled Document

    General information about Albit

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures

     

    Fig. 1. Yield increase of different agricultural crops, under the influence of Albit (t/hectare over control, mean values of all field trials). Crops are listed in alphabetical order.



    Untitled Document


    Albit is the plants stimulant of biological origin which is developed by Russian scientists and competitive with the best analogues up-country and abroad. In the last decade, Albit becme the standard for its class of biopesticides in crop production.

    What is the reason for the success of Albit?

    A significant drawback of traditional pesticides is their inability to protect plants from abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, the yield losses of major crops occurring due to abiotic stress factors (drought, extreme temperatures, salinity and soil pollution, pesticide stress, etc.) are estimated at 51-82 %, which is greater than the losses due to pests and diseases. In particular, any pesticide treatment of plants has a stress side effect even on main culture. Under the influence of herbicides net photosynthetic rate is reduced by 44-129 %, fungicides - by 21-35 %, insecticides - by 36-81 % (Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, V. 86 - 2006).

    Albit LLC employees develop biological stimulators and immunizators for over 40 years. They created a multipurpose antistress agent, using the potential of natural beneficial microorganisms that live on plant roots. Unlike many analogues, Albit has no direct stimulatory effect on the growth, but enhances the natural immunity and stress tolerance of plants, thereby increasing yield.

    Fig. 2. Brand-new automatic fermentation equipment which Albit is produced on

    High efficiency of Albit has been confirmed in more than 250 successful field trials carried out in 1997-2004 by leading scientific institutions: Lomonosov Moscow State university, All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (Ministry of Agriculture), All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection RAAS (Russia Academy of Agricultural Sciences), All-Russia Flax Institute, All-Russia Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops, All-Russia Institute of Horticulture, All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, All-Russia Institute of Viticulture and Vine processing, Institute of Plant Physiology (Russian Academy of Sciences), All-Russia Soil Institute, Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, Ryazan State Agricultural Academy, Kurgan Institute of Grain Growing, Far East Institute of Plant Protection, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Regional Plant Protection Stations and others.

    High efficiency of Albit was demonstrated in long-term field trials in winter and spring wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, sugar beet, sunflower, corn, flax, potato, millet, sorghum buckwheat, soybean, pea, vetch, galega, canola, string bean, lupine, alfalfa, lentil, vine, apple, white and Chinese cabbage, onions, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, pepper, lettuce, eggplants, vegetable marrows, table beet, strawberry, currant, cherry, gooseberry, roses, roses, amaranth, decorative green plantings and wood breeds, lawn grasses, outdoor and greenhouse flowers (total in 60 agricultures).

    In Russia, Albit is permitted for use asantidote (also registered as a plant growth regulatorandfungicide). Albit is registered in a number of countries of theCommonwealth of Independent States, European Union,Switzerland, Australia, USA and other countries, as fertilizer (supplementary additive for plants).

    Fig. 3. On the left: Phase-contrast microscopy of bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) with granules of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). On the right: structural formula of the PHB.

    The active ingredient of Albit is a natural biopolymer poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesized by soil beneficial bacteria Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. In the natural environment, these bacteria inhabit on plant roots and stimulate root growth, protect plants from diseases and environmental stresses. The formulation also contains a set of substances which potentiate and stabilize the effect of PHB: Magnesium sulphate, Dipotassium phosphate, Potassium nitrate, Urea, and Coniferous extract. Albit does not contain living microorganisms, that makes its activity more stable and less dependent on environmental conditions. Albit combines low cost and low toxicity of biological fertilizers, and efficiency, stability and predictability of chemical pesticides.

    Mechanisms of action of Albit are based on natural resistance reactions of plants: stimulation of antioxidant enzymes and induction of immune response, regulation of uptake of nutrients and plant development (see for details).

    Increase of yield and plant growth stimulation. Albit stably increases yield of cereals, sugar beet, sunflower, potato, flax, vegetables, legumes, horticultures, fodder grasses averagely by 5-20% (Plant protection and quarantine, Nr 9, 2005). The yield increase of plant species having high undisclosed potential (such as buckwheat and canola) might reach up to 50 % over the control (Fig.1).

    In field trials Albit provided averagely 2.25 times higher yield increase than other biostimulants and plant growth regulators. Effectiveness of Albit was practically the same as that of chemical fungicides, which are tenth times more expensive.

    Yield quality. Albit increases gluten content in wheat grain by 0.5-5.1% (averagely by 2.3%). Albit also improves yield quality of other crops, for example, increases sugar content in sugar beet by 0.3-2.0%, output of sunflower oil (reports of All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection) and percentage-number of flax fibre by 2655 % (reports of All-Russia Flax Institute). In vegetables, Albit increases content of vitamins by 6-25 % whereas content of nitrates decreases by 1626% (reports of All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding). Joint application of 1 ml of Albit with insecticides provides additionally 5 L of canola oil on average (Plant protection and quarantine, Nr 1, 2005; Plant protection and quarantine, Nr 8, 2007 ).

    Protection against diseases. Albit possesses protective activity, suppressing development of the broad range of main diseases of agricultural crops (root rots, powdery mildew, leaf spots, brown rust, fusarioses, septorioses, anthracnose, scab, late blight, black leg, white and grey decay, bacterioses, etc.); Albit is officially registered in Russia as a mean of protection against 26 diseases. Biological efficiency of the pesticide against diseases is 40-90% averagely (Plant protection and quarantine , Nr 1, 2005, Zemledeliye, Nr 1, 2007). Efficiency of Albit against many diseases is not inferior to that of much more expensive chemical means of protection. E.g., the biological efficiency (BE) of Albit against root rots of cereal crops is 5981% averagely, whereas BE of chemical fungicides is just 40-70% (Plant protection and quarantine , Nr 3, 2005).

    Unlike chemical fungicides, Albit is not toxic and does not eradicate pathogens, but it increases the natural resistance (immunity) of plants. Therefore, plants should be treated before appearance of the first signs of disease, and infestation with complex of pathogens must not exceed 30% (in absence of internal infections). At higher infestation level, the biostimulant is recommended to combine (mix together) with chemical fungicides.

    Reduction of fungicidal load. Treatment of plants with the majority of chemical pesticides causes stress and temporary oppression of the plants, negatively affecting yield and yield quality. Albit relieves the fungicide-mediated stress, and also increases natural protective mechanisms of plants against diseases, that lead to increasing fungicidal activity of a chemical pesticide. Therefore, use of chemical fungicides mixed with Albit makes possible application of the lowest recommended fungicide rates. Trials of All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection RAAS, All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, and other authorities (252 field trials with chemical fungicides and protectants based on benomyl, dimethomorph, dithianon, difenoconazole, carbendazim, carboxin, mancozeb, metalaxyl, propiconazole, sulphur compounds, spiroxamine, tebuconazole, thiabendazole, thiram, triadimenol, flutriafol, copper compounds, cymoxanil, cyproconazole and epoxiconazole) demonstrated thathalved dose of a chemical fungicide in combination with Albit is as effective as the full dose of fungicide(Zemledeliye, Nr 2, 2005)

    For example, trials of All-Russia Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops (Oryol oblast) demonstrated high efficiency of spring barley presowing treatment with combination of Albit and decreased dose of flutriafol/thiabendazol based fungicide (Vestnik RAAS, Nr 2, 2007). Treatment with such combination provided considerable acceleration of plant growth and 28.9% yield increase over untreated control (in variant with full dose of fungicide yield increase was just 17.1%), and total suppression of root rots (Fig.4).

    Fig. 4. Growth of spring barley var. Vizit after pre-sowing seed treatment with fungicide (1) and fungicide + Albit (2) (National Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops, 2005 left picture, and 2006 right picture)

    Owing to reduction of the dose of chemical fungicides and fungicidal seed treatment agents, Albit make possible considerable reduction the cost of plant protective treatments (by 20-45%).

    Relieving herbicidal stress. Besides their main functions (protection of plants from weeds), pesticides always cause stress to plants which they are devoted to defend. To reduce pesticide toxicity, special substances called antidotes (safeners) - might be used. Application of Albit as an safener together with herbicides saves up to half of the yield of cereals, sugar beet, soybean, flax and other cultures. Antistress activity of Albit is especially pronounced in case of winter cereals treatment in EC stage 20-29 (tillering). The plants, weakened by winter, herbicides and root rots, respond to Albit treatment with dramatic increase of productivity (up to 10 centners/hectare under field conditions).

    In field trials, application of Albit together with herbicides provided considerable yield increase of all major crops (Table 1).

    Table 1. Antidote effect of Albit in combination with herbicides (yield increase in sets of Albit + herbicides as compared to pure herbicides).
    Culture Antidote effect,
    centners/hectare %
    Maize 10.1 19.3
    Flax (straw) 4.4

    11.0

    Onion 30.0 18.0
    Sunflower 1.0

    6.5

    Millet 5.4 41.0
    Winter wheat 6.0

    16.0

    Spring wheat 1.2 11.0
    Canola 1,7

    5.0

    Sugar beet 25.7 6.9
    Winter barley 9.4

    18.0

    Spring barley 3.5 11.8
    Note: presented data are the arithmetic means of all tests on combinations of Albit with herbicides available in Albit Scientific and Industrial LLC
    (105 field trials during 2001-2007).

    For example, trial of Orenburg State Agrarian University demonstrated that Albit increases effectiveness of all herbicides commonly used in this region (Fig. 5).

    Fig. 5 Efficiency of combined application of Albit and herbicides on spring wheat
    (field trials of Orenburg State Agrarian University, 2005)

    By now, the antidote activity of Albit was has been proven in combination with herbicides based on 2,4-D amidosulphuron, haloxyfop R-methyl, desmedipham, dicamba, quizalofop-p-tefuryl, clopyralid, metsulfuron-methyl, tralkoxidim, triasulfuron, tribenuron-methyl, trifluralin, thriflusulphuron-methyl, phenmedipham, fenoxaprop-ethyl, florasulam, fluazifop-p-butyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl, chlorsulfuron and ethofumesate (data of 105 field trials).

    In a similar way, due to its antidote activity, Albit applied together with insecticides against plant louses, leaf beetles, Swedish fly, Colorado beetle, caterpillars and other insect pests increases plant productivity by 5-93% over control (treatment with insecticide alone).

    It is known that treatment of wheat by insecticides against shield-backed bugs reduces accumulation of gluten in grain. Addition of Albit to the insecticides increases gluten content by 1.24.6% comparing to the treatment with insecticide alone. Combination of Albit and insecticides provides pronounced positive effect also on canola. (Plant protection and quarantine, Nr 8, 2007).

    In summary, combined use of Albit with fungicides, insecticides and herbicides increases their efficiency by 5 - 93 %. According to head of one of the advanced farms-consumers of Albit , only together with Albit all fungicides he used before started working with their full capacity, i.e., providing 100% of the effect declared by their producers. Thus, joint use of Albit and standard recommended means of plant protection provides their high reliability and effectiveness.

    According to averaged data of all field trials, addition of Albit to chemical pesticides provides yield increase:

    • to herbicides by 16,6 %;
    • to insecticides by 16,1 %;
    • to chemical fungicides by 12,0 %
    as compared to control grown with pure pesticides (without Albit) (Zemledeliye, Nr. 1, 2006; Nr. 7, 2007).

    Drought resistance. According to data of Institute of Plant Physiology, Albit increases ability of plants to endure drought (increased temperature and moisture deficiency) by 10-60 %. Now Albit is the only pesticide officially registered in Russia as a mean of increase of drought resistance of cereal crops (The List of Pesticides, 2006). Increased drought resistance remains for several months after treatment with Albit. Due to Albit, at the time of drought in 2003, farmers of Krasnodar krai harvested high yields of wheat and barley (50-70 centners/hectare), same as those level of normal 2002. The analogous effect was observed in the 1998, 2000, 2003 and 2007 drought years in different regions of Russia.

    Composite fertilizer. Due to the promotion of soil nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization by soil bacteria, Albit increases coefficients of mineral nutrient uptake by 18-47%. In result, plants use available nutrients more efficiently that makes possible reduction of mineral fertilizer rates. According to data of the Department of Agrochemistry of the Moscow State University, application of Albit is capable to replace up to 18 kg of a.i./hectare of nitric fertilizers and 14 kg of phosphoric ones. (Bulletin of All-Russia Institute of Fertilizers and Agrochemistry, Nr 113, 2000)

    Reliability. Experts in agriculture know well, that the result of application of even highly effective pesticides can noticeably vary depending on year, field specificity, agricultural background, phytosanitary conditions, terms of treatment. One of the purposes of Albit development was overcoming of low reproducibility, which is a common defect of most of the biostimulants. Reproducibility can be quantitatively characterized by the ratio of standard deviation of all experiments and the arithmetical mean (variation coefficient CV). According to averaged CVs of all field trials, the ability of Albit to provide stable yield increase was 2.48 times higher than that of the other bioformulations and 12% higher than that of chemical pesticides. Therefore, high reliability and reproducibility (Fig. 6) is one of the main advantages of Albit.

    Fig. 6. Reproducibility of action of Albit and other types of pesticides (averaged results of all field trials).
    Reproducibility of Albit is taken for 100%.

    Acceleration of plant growth. Due to intensification of physiological and biochemical processes, Albit accelerates the changes of phenological stages of agricultural crops by 3-12 days. As a result, duration of the vegetative period required to obtain the high-grade yield is reduced, that in some cases makes possible earlier harvesting and obtaining of stable yield of southern cultures (sugar beet, soybean, winter canola, vegetables) in more northern regions (Plant protection and quarantine, Nr 11, 2005).

    Economical efficiency. Cost of Albit is considerably lower, than that of analogous products. Presowing seed treatment of 1 tonne of cereals or foliar treatment of 1 hectare with Albit costs about 88 roubles. Application rates of Albit for most crops are about 40 ml per tonne of seeds for presowing treatment, and 40 ml/hectare for treatment of vegetating plants. Full cycle of Albit treatment for cereals (presowing + 2 vegetative treatments) takes averagely just 90 ml of Albit per hectare, that corresponds to 198 roubles/hectare.

    The net profit of Albit application averages from 500 to 15000 roubles/hectare; the profitability varies from 200 to 2000% depending on the crop, year and climatic conditions.

    For example, the average increase of winter wheat yield under the influence of Albit in Russia is 5.0 centners/hectare. At the recommended wheat grain price of 500 roubles/centner the profit is 2500 roubles/hectare. Subtrackcting the cost of the pesticide (198 roubles/hectare for 1 presowing and 2 vegetative treatments), the net profit of Albit application on this crop will make 2302 roubles/hectare. Since Albit is commonly applied in mixture with chemical pesticides at the scheduled chemical pesticide treatments, application expenses are not taken into account Accordingly, each rouble spent for application of Albit brings 11.6 roubles of payback (1060% profitability).

    In multiple trials conducted on the main agricultures, the profitability of Albit under field conditions was not lower than 200 %.

    Table 2. Approximate application recommendations and profitability of Albit for the main agricultures (mean data of all available field trials)
    Culture Way of treatment and average application rates Consumption of Albit, ml/hectare
    (=litres/1000 hectares)
    Cost of treatment, roubles/hectare Field area which can be treated with 1 litre of Albit Yield increase, centners/hectare Extra yield (in centners) provided by 1 litre of Albit Net profit, roubles/hectare
    Winter wheat presowing treatment, 40 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 40 ml/hectare
    90 198 11.1 5.0 56 500-3500
    Spring barley presowing treatment, 40 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 40 ml/hectare
    90 198 11.1 3.9 43 367-2227
    Sugar beet presowing treatment, 75 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 40 ml/hectare
    80 176 12.5 48.1 599 1100-6200
    Sunflower presowing treatment, 350 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 40 ml/hectare
    82 180 12.2 3.4 42 1300-3500
    Potato presowing treatment, 100 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 40 ml/hectare
    470 1034 2.1 34.3 73 7000-16000
    Maize (corn) presowing treatment, 100 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 40 ml/hectare
    82 180 12.2 3.7 45 1485
    Canola (seeds) presowing treatment, 50 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying, ml/hectare
    60 133 16.6 5.2 87 801-5538
    Soybean presowing treatment, 50 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying, ml/hectare
    40 88 25.0 3.2 80 1352
    Pea presowing treatment, 50 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying, ml/hectare
    45 99 22.2 2.0 45 600-2500
    Buckwheat presowing treatment, 50 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying, ml/hectare
    44 96 23.0 4.8 111 2150-2200
    Flax (straw) presowing treatment, 60 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying, ml/hectare
    58 127 17.4 5.5 95 1400-3100
    Tomato presowing treatment, 2000 ml/tonne;
    foliar spraying (twice), 30 ml/hectare
    61 134 16.4 46.7 766 6200-23000
    Apple triple foliar spraying, 100 ml/hectare 300 660 3.3 14.3 48 1300-11000
    Cost of application of Albit is given based on Russian domestic retail price.

    Albit requires very low application rates. For foliar spraying on most agricultural crops, concentration of Albit 1 ml/10 l is recommended. Albit solution of this concentration is used for foliar sprayings, watering, root and extra-root fertilizing, trickle irrigation, soil saturation. It is desirable that the solution gets onto the plant leaves.

    Instead of performing separate treatments with Albit, you may add 10 ml Albit/10 l working solution of standard herbicide, insecticide, fertilizer treatments (for details see above).

    Since 1999, Albit has been successfully used in farms of Amur, Belgorod, Bryansk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Ivanovo, Irkutsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Lipetsk, Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Perm, Rostov, Ryazan, Samara, Saratov, Sverdlov, Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, Chelyabinsk, Yaroslavl oblasts, republics of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, Kabardino-Balkaria and Mordovia, Altay, Krasnodar, Perm, Primorye and Stavropol krais (totally in 50 regions of Russia and 25 foreign countries ranging from Germany and Switzerland to China and Australia). The main indicator of high necessity of Albit is stable 1.5-2 fold increasing of its annual sales in Russia (Fig. 7).

    Fig. 7. Regions of Russia where Albit is used, data of 2014 (marked with more intensive color)

    Albit consumers are the farms with different financial capabilities: from individual farmers to the largest farms and agricultural holdings from various regions of Russia. Farms apply Albit together with chemical pesticides to increase their efficiency, to reduce cost of treatment and to improve yield quality. Our partners are the largest and most advanced cereal-growing farms of Krasnodar krai (OSC Chapaev breeding farm , Kuban breeding farm, Yug AgroBiznes agroholding), collective farm of Roslyakov V.M. (wheat yield harvested in this farm under conditions of Tyumen oblast (Siberia) is 60 centners/hectare), the largest flax growing farms of Russia (Biyskaya Lnyanaya Companiya (Biysk flax company) of Altay krai), the most profitable sugar beet growing farms of Russia Pamyat Kirova OSC of Tambov oblast, KhoperAgroProdukt LLC of Krasnodar krai (yield of sugar beet is 110 tonnes/hectare), advanced potatoes growing farms Merisistemnye kultury of Stavropol Krai, Elitnyi Kartofel of Moscow oblast, State Pedigree Farm Verkhnemulinskiy of Perm krai, Pushkinskoe experimental farm of Nizhniy Novgorod oblast, Voskhod agricultural company of Primorye krai, etc. In the Ukraine, among our Customers should be mentioned Agricultural Company Burgudzhi of Odessa oblast, Baryshivska Grain Company of Kyiv oblast, Iceberg Ltd. of Zakarpattya oblast, Shampan Ukrainy SA, well-known Agricultural Holdings such as Kernel, Agroprodinvest, Luckygrain, Ukraina, Krajevid Invest, Chimk and others. In Latvia, it is the largest farm of the country SIA Uzvara-lauks. In Czech Republic, Zemedelske druzstvo Necin, Zihelsky statek a.s., Zemedelska spolecnost Stranka s.r.o. (Melnik), Druzina (seed treatment facility for farmers all across the country), and Rolnicka a.s. may be listed. Results of application of Albit in European Union countries are summarized here.

    On the other hand, the more small-scale farms use Albit as a less expensive alternative of chemical fungicides.

    Albit has been highly appreciated by experts. Annual Russian Innovations contest is carried out for the purpose of promotion of innovations in Russia and selection of the most perspective scientific high-tech developments. Organizers of contest are journal Expert and Financial Corporation Sistema with support of Department of Education and Science of Russian Federation. The winners are the best innovation projects in the field of aerospace technologies, nuclear-power engineering, electronics, biotechnology, medicine, etc. In 2003, Albit was the only product in the field of agriculture which reached the final of the competition.

    Application. Albit is used for presowing seed treatment and foliar sprays of plants. In most cases, Albit is not applied alone, but in course of scheduled treatments with fungicides, herbicides and insecticides.

    The main ways of using Albit are:

    For the detailed application recommendations of Albit, please refer to the officially registered Application recommendations.

    Preparative form of Albit is fluid paste with pleasant coniferous smell that easily mixes up with water. The formulation is packaged in 1 litre plastic bottles, 16 bottles in box.

    According to results of toxicological expertise, Albit is reckoned among 4th class of danger (lowest toxicity), whereas majority of pesticides relates to more dangerous 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes of danger. Thus, one important feature of Albit is its harmlessness for humans, animals and plants. Due to its safety Albit is used in technologies of organic farming.

    Shelf life of Albit is 3 years at the temperature from -20 to +25°.

    All calculations concerning cost of application and economic efficacy of Albit on this website are made based on the domestic Russian retail price of our product. Actual prices in other countries are dependent on customs/transportation costs and legal issues and are set by local Distributors.

    Manufacturer: Albit Scientific and Industrial LLC (Albit LLC)
    (142290 Moscow oblast, Pushchino, rospect Nauki, 5)

    For updated information about Albit, please see our Internet site
    www.albit.ru (Russian) and www.albit.com (English, might contain incomplete and/or obsolete information).

    For purchasing Albit and consultations, please refer to our official dealers.
    The nearest dealer can be found here.




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