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    Combination with chemical fungicides and fungicidal seed treatment agents
    Combination with herbicides
    Combination with insecticides
    Combination with other biostimulants and plant growth regulators
    Combination with fertilizers
    Non toxicity for humans, animals and plants

     

    Untitled Document

    Combination of Albit with chemical fungicides and fungicidal seed treatment agents

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops and panicled cereals Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures

    Materials of this chapter were also published in: Zlotnikov, A.K., Begunov, I.I., Zlotnikov, K.M., Kudryavtsev, N.A., Lebedev, V.B., Safonov, P.A., Sergeyev, V.R., Talash A.I. (2005) Effectiveness of combination of Albit and halved doses of fungicides. Zemledelie, Nr. 2, p. 33-25.

    Owing to its immunizing properties, Albit itself is able to protect plants from diseases. The biostimulant is effective, for example, against main diseases of flax, watery soft rot and head grey mould blight of sunflower, rusts and leaf spots, and especially against root rots of cereals (Biologicai efficiency is up to 100%). However, fungicidal effect of Albit is considerable only at low and moderate infestation of plants. At higher infestation level, Albit should be used in combination with chemical fungicides. In this case, one can use the minimal, or (in most cases) halved recommended application rate of fungicides, since, as it is described below, joint application with Albit reinforces activity of chemical fungicides.

    Summarized data of multiple (252) field trials which were carried out through 1999-2006, demonstrated high efficiency of joint application of biostimulant Albit with halved (decreased) rates of chemical fungicides and protectants based on mancozeb, dimethomorph, propiconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, thiabendazole, tebuconazole, flutriafol, carboxin, thiram, difenoconazole, carbendazim, sulphur, mancozeb, metalaxyl, copper compounds, oxadixyl, cymoxanil, epoxiconazole, mefenoxam, spiroxamine, triadimenol, benomyl, etc. (Table 13, Fig. 1).

    Albit was combined both with fungicides used for presowing seed treatment (based on difenoconazole, carboxin, thiram, etc.) and with ones used for foliar spraying (based on propiconazole, cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, carbendazim, etc). Effectiveness of mixtures of Albit and fungicides was demonstrated for wide range of diseases (internal, soil, leaf infections, bacterial and seed infections) of different agricultures: vine, potatoe, flax, sunflower, millet, winter and spring wheat, barley, sugar beet, soybean, apple. Infection levels varied from low (prevalence of 2-10% in trials of All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding on soybean) to artificially high (92-95% in trials of All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops on millet). There was no cases of incompatability or decreased efficiency of fungicides used in combination with Albit. These facts are witness of Albit/fungicide combination universality (Table 13).

    It is very important, that in majority of conducted trials the effectiveness (biological efficiency, yield increase) of combination of Albit with halved dose of a fungicide was not lower or even higher than efficiency of full fungicide dose (Fig. 1). Wantage of fungicide of direct action was compensated by immunizing effect of Albit.

     

    Fig. 1. Biological efficacy of tank mix Albit + 1/2 fungicide, % from efficacy of full fungicide dose

     

    This feature of Albit helps to decrease pesticidal load on crops and to reduce cost of treatments by 20-45% preserving protective effect. For example, using data of Table 12 one can compare cost of treatment with full dose of some fungicides and with halved dose of fungicides mixed with Albit (both kinds of treatment provide the same protective effect and yield increase). Decrease of treatment cost is a prerequisite of high economical efficiency of combination of Albit with decreased doses of fungicides. For example, in trial of Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East on spring barley (2002), application of full dose of carbendazim based fungicide provided net profit of 1051 roubles/hectare, whereas combination of halved dose of the fungicide with Albit provided 1564 roubles/hectare. Analogously, treatment of winter wheat with decreased dose of thiram/tebuconazole based fungicide combined with Albit (trial of Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station) instead of full dose of the fungicide increased net profit from 450 roubles to 1299 roubles. Summarizing all obtained data, one can say that for majority of tested protectants and fungicides, joint application of Albit with reduced doses of the fungicides increases economical effectiveness of fungicidal treatments 1.5-2 fold (Table 12).

     

    Table 12. Expenses on presowing seed treatment and foliar spraying with some commonly used fungicides and fungicidal seed treatment agents, and with corresponding fungicide/Albit combinations.
    Way of treatment: p presowing seed treatment, f foliar spraying.
    Pesticide,
    active ingredient
    Way of treatment Cost of treatment of 1 tonne (1 hectare), USD* Cost saving, %
    Full dose Halved dose + Albit
    propiconazole + cyproconazole f 18.0 12.0 33
    thiabendazole + tebuconazole p 27.2 16.7 39
    thiabendazole + flutriafol p 25.4 15.8 38
    carboxin + thiram p 30.0 18.1 40
    difenoconazole + cyproconazole p 30.4 18.3 40
    carbendazim p 17.2 11.6 32
    tebuconazole p 21.4 13.8 36
    epoxiconazole f 21.0 13.6 35
    thiram p 20.1 13.1 35
    thiram (older type of formulition) p 10.8 8.5 21
    spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol f 19.0 12.6 34
    carboxin + thiram p 32.6 19.4 41
    carbendazim p 19.3 12.7 34
    tebuconazole p 26.1 16.1 38
    benomyl f 21.4 13.8 36
    benomyl p 60.3 33.2 45
    * According to average retail prices of the corresponding fungicides in Russia, 2005.

     

    Trial results persuasively show advantages of Albit/fungicide combinations. It is necessary to note, that in the last years, 74 trials studying this phenomenon were carried out.

    According to averaged data of all available field trials, joint application of Albit with halved doses of chemical fungicides provides the following effect:

    • in terms of biological efficiency - 130 %;
    • in terms of yield increase - 107 %;
    • in terms of profit obtained from one hectare - 200 %.

    Results of all conducted experiments on combination of Albit with decreased application rates of fungicides are presented in summarizing table (Table 13). In this table you can see agricultural (influence on yield), biological (fungicidal) and economical (net profit obtained from one hectare) effectiveness of these combinations.

     

    Table 13. Results of field trials on combination of Albit with halved (reduced) application rates of fungicides and fungicidal seed treatment agents. Trials are classified according to active ingredient, crop and disease.
    Nr Active ingredients of the fungicides used in the experiment Application rate of the fungicide Application rate of
    Albit
    Crop Disease Biological Efficiency ,% Yield, centners/hectare Net profit, USD/hectare Efficiency of decreased rate of fungicide + Albit in comparison to the efficiency full rate, % Comments Institution, year
    full decreased full rate decreased rate + Albit full rate decreased rate + Albit full rate decreased rate + Albit regarding to disease control regarding to yield increase
    1. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring barley root rots 57 43 21.4 13.2 - - 75 62 Yield in control was 7.7 centners/hectare. Kostroma regional plant protection station, 2006
    2. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring barley root rots 57 43 24 17.4 - - 75 73 Foliar spraying with Albit, 30 ml/hectare was carried out. Yield in control was 11.0 centners/hectare. Kostroma regional plant protection station, 2006
    3. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring barley net blotch 39 44 21.4 13.2 - - 113 62 BE against net blotch is indicated for EC stages 20-29. Yield in control was 7.7 centners/hectare. Kostroma regional plant protection station, 2006
    4. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring barley net blotch 40 65 21.4 13.2 - - 163 62 BE against net blotch is indicated for EC stages 50-69. Yield in control was 7.7 centners/hectare. Kostroma regional plant protection station, 2006
    5. tebuconazol e 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring barley net blotch 39 44 24 17.4 - - 113 73 Foliar spraying with Albit, 30 ml/hectare, was carried out. BE against net blotch is indicated for EC stages 20-29. Yield in control was 11.0 centners/hectare. Kostroma regional plant protection station, 2006
    6. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring barley net blotch 55 69 24 17.4 - - 125 73 Foliar spraying with Albit, 30 ml/hectare was carried out. BE against net blotch is indicated for EC stages 50-69. Yield in control was 11.0 centners/hectare. Kostroma regional plant protection station, 2006
    7. propiconazole + cyproconazole 0.4 L/hectare 0,2 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat brown rust and other rusts 90 86 53.8 54.2 - - 96 101 BE of halved dose of Alto-super (without Albit) was 47-58%, yield increase 9.5%. Yield in control was 45.4 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 2004
    8. propiconazole + cyproconazole 0.4 L/hectare 0,2 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat Septoria leaf spot s and other spots 79 78 53.8 54.2 - - 99 101 BE of halved dose of Alto-super (without Albit) was 47-58%, yield increase 9.5%. Yield in control was 45.4 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 2004
    9. cyproconazole 0,1 L/hectare 30 ml/hectare sugar beet 347 - - Alto was applied in combination with second foliar spraying with Albit. Yield in control was 241 centners/hectare. Chapaev breeding farm OSC, 2003
    10. cyproconazole 0,1 L/hectare 30 ml/hectare sugar beet 360 - - Alto was applied in combination with second foliar spraying with Albit. Yield in control was 273 centners/hectare. Chapaev breeding farm OSC, 2003
    11. propiconazole 0.5 L/hectare 0,35 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat 53 58.8 0 55,68 111 Trial on wheat var. Yermak. Presowing treatment with full dose of fungicide Sfinks 0.5 L/tonne; with reduced dose of fungicide Sfinks 0.35 L/tonne + Albit 40 ml/tonne. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    12. propiconazole 0.5 L/hectare 0,35 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat 52.8 53.2 0 3,84 101 Trial on wheat var. Yubileynaya 100. Presowing treatment with full dose of fungicide Sfinks 0.5 L/tonne; with reduced dose of fungicide -Sfinks 0.35 L/tonne + Albit 40 ml/tonne. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    13. propiconazole 0.5 L/hectare 0,35 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat 56 65.8 0 94,08 118 Trial on wheat var. Lira. Presowing treatment with full dose of fungicide Sfinks 0.5 L/tonne; with reduced dose of fungicide -Sfinks 0.35 L/tonne + Albit 40 ml/tonne. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    14. propiconazole 0.5 L/hectare 0,35 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat 43 49 0 57,6 114 Trial on wheat var. Deya. Presowing treatment with full dose of fungicide Sfinks 0.5 L/tonne; with reduced dose of fungicide -Sfinks 0.35 L/tonne + Albit 40 ml/tonne. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    15. triadimefon 0.2 / 0,1 / 200 ml/hectare vine downy mildew 41 51 83 86 - - 124 Yeld was characterised as percent of ripened berries. The average annual shoot increment in Baileton-treated variant is 334 cm; in variant treated with Albit/Baileton combination - 424 cm. All-Russia Institute of Viticulture and Vine Processing, 2003
    16. triadimefon 0.2 / 0,1 / 200 ml/hectare vine powdery
    mildew
    31/39 37/45 83 86 - - 117 Yeld was characterised as percent of ripened berries. BE was calculated in accordance to scheme leaves/shoots. The average annual shoot increment in Baileton-treated variant is 334 cm; in variant treated with Albit/Baileton combination - 424 cm. All-Russia Institute of Viticulture and Vine Processing, 2003
    17. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    50 46 47.6 47.6 - - 92 100 Var. Pobeda. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants. Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    18. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    60 66 50.2 51.3 - - 110 102 Var. Pobeda. Double foliar spraying with Albit, 40 ml/hectare. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants. Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    19. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    46 56 45.8 47.8 - - 122 104 Var. Don 95. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants. Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    20. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    60 64 48.7 48.6 - - 107 100 Var. Don 95. Double foliar spraying with Albit, 40 ml/hectare. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    21. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    60 56 54.5 54.8 - - 93 101 Var. Prikumskaya 140. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    22. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    60 80 58 57.7 - - 133 99 Var. Prikumskaya 140. Double foliar spraying with Albit, 40 ml/hectare. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    23. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    74 80 47.2 50.2 - - 108 106 Var. Prikumskaya 124. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    24. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    76 90 52.4 54.6 - - 118 104 Var. Prikumskaya 124. Double foliar spraying with Albit, 40 ml/hectare. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    25. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    60 70 52.6 53 - - 117 101 Var. Prikumskaya 152. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    26. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    80 84 57 58.4 - - 105 102 Var. Prikumskaya 152. Double foliar spraying with Albit, 40 ml/hectare. The maximal infestation of plants was considered as 5 points. BE was calculated basing on infestation points in concrete variants Bio-Rost LLC, 2005
    27. thiabendazole + tebuconazole 0.4 L/tonne 0,2 L/tonne 200 g/tonne sunflower watery soft rot 57 63 24 24.5 63,48 74,48 111 102 The maximal effectiveness is in variant with additional foliar spraying with Albit. Addition of Albit to thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide increased germination by 2-15%, weight of 1000 seeds, diameter of head. Yield in control was 21.0 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2003
    28. thiabendazole + tebuconazole 0.4 L/tonne 0,2 L/tonne 200 g/tonne sunflower head gray
    mould blight
    67 71 24 24.5 63,48 74,48 106 102 The maximal effectiveness is in variant with additional foliar spraying with Albit. Addition of Albit to thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide increased germination by 2-15%, weight of 1000 seeds, diameter of head. Yield in control was 21.0 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2003
    29. thiabendazole + tebuconazole 0.4 L/tonne 0,2 L/tonne 30 g/tonne winter wheat brown rust 6 38 39.6 42 18 51,96 633 106 The average data of 3-years trials. Profitability of thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide treatments is 150%; profitability of treatment with combination of Albit + 1/2 dose of thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide is 760%. Yield in control was 37.1 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2001-2003
    30. thiabendazole + tebuconazole 0.4 L/tonne 0,2 L/tonne 30 g/tonne winter wheat powdery
    mildew
    5 24 39.6 42 18 51,96 480 106 The average data of 3-years trials. Profitability of thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide treatments is 150%; profitability of treatment with combination of Albit + 1/2 dose of Thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide is 760%. Yield in control was 37.1 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2001-2003
    31. thiabendazole + tebuconazole 0.4 L/tonne 0,2 L/tonne 30 g/tonne winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    1 26 39.6 42 18 51,96 2600 106 The average data of 3-years trials. Profitability of thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide treatments is 150%; profitability of treatment with combination of Albit + 1/2 dose of Thiabendazole/tebuconazole-based fungicide is 760%. Yield in control was 37.1 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2001-2003
    32. thiabendazole + flutriafol 1 L/tonne 40 g/tonne winter wheat root rots 100 - - Average yield was 45-49 centners/hectare with glutent content of 23-29%. The Index of Gluten Deformation is 65-95. Treatments provided improved winter survival and drought resistance. Cost of treatment (comparing to treatment with pure pesticide) decreased approx. twofold. Ecologiya LLC, 1999-2002
    33. thiabendazole + flutriafol 1 L/tonne 40 g/tonne winter wheat root rots 100 19 - - Treatments provided visible improvement of winter survival and drought resistance, 2-4 fold increase of rootage weight. Column yield contains percent of yield increase over control. Ecologiya LLC, 2001-2002
    34. thiabendazole + flutriafol 2 L/tonne 0,30 L/tonne 50 ml/tonne spring barley root rots 100 100 21.9 24.1 - - 100 110 Flutriafol with Albit were used for presowing seed treatment as a part of combination Albit-3 (70 ml/tonne). Plants treated with this combination reached EC stage 50-59 while plants in control was in EC stage 29-39, i.e. forestalling in development was about 15 days. Yield in control was 18.7 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2005
    35. thiabendazole + flutriafol 2 L/tonne 0,30 L/tonne 50 ml/tonne spring barley root rots 100 100 56.5 59.4 - - 100 105 Flutriafol with Albit were used for presowing seed treatment as a part of combination Albit-3 (70 ml/tonne). Yield in control was 50.3 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2006
    36. carboxin + thiram 3 L/tonne 1,5 30 ml/tonne spring wheat root rots 72 69 18.8 20.7 26,68 55,64 96 110 BE was calculated in EC stage 20-29. Yield in control was 16.5 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2004
    37. carboxin + thiram 3 L/tonne 1,5 30 ml/tonne spring wheat root rots 73 70 18.8 20.7 26,68 55,64 96 110 BE was calculated in EC stage 50-59. Yield in control was 16.5 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2004
    38. carboxin + thiram 3 L/tonne 1,5 30 ml/tonne spring wheat loose smut 100 100 18.8 20.7 26,68 55,64 100 110 Yield in control was 16.5 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2004
    39. carboxin + thiram 2 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne spring barley root rots 44 100 - - 227 BE of trial with halved dose of fungicide was considered as 100% (disease prevalence was 4%). Cost of treatment of 1 tonne of grain in variant wariant with decreased fungicide rate was decreased by 13.2 USD. Kurkino collective farm, 2002
    40. thiram + tebuconazole ) 1.5 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 96 96 46 49 - - 100 107 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    41. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 96 96 54 56 - - 100 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    42. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 96 96 47 51 - - 100 109 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    43. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 44 96 46 49 - - 218 107 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    44. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 44 96 54 56 - - 218 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    45. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 44 96 47 51 - - 218 109 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    46. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 88 94 46 49 - - 107 107 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    47. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 88 94 54 56 - - 107 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    48. thiram + tebuconazole 1.5 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 88 94 47 51 - - 107 109 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    49. thiram + tebuconazole 2 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo
    disease
    8 14 46 49 - - 175 107 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    50. thiram + tebuconazole 2 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo
    disease
    86 87 54 56 - - 101 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    51. thiram + tebuconazole 2 L/tonne 1 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo
    disease
    27 30 47 51 - - 111 109 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    52. difenoconazole + cyproconazole 1.0 L/tonne 0,5 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat root rots 66 67 85.9 85.4 - - 102 99 Treatment with Dividend star sonsiderably retarded germination under field conditions: by 10th day there was only 10% of germinated seeds (in untreated control 50%), while treatment with Albit provided 60%. Combined using of Dividend star and Albit provided 30% of germinated seeds by this time. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004-2005
    53. difenoconazole + cyproconazole 1.0 L/tonne 0,5 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat stinking smut 100 100 85.9 85.4 - - 100 99 All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004-2005
    54. difenoconazole + cyproconazole 1 L/tonne 0,7 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat 57 64.7 - - 114 Var. Krasnodarskaya 99. Foliar treatment with full rate of flurtiafol-based fungicide 0.5 L/hectare, decreased rate - 0.35 L/hectare + Albit 40 ml/hectare. Esentuki-khleb OSC, 2005
    55. difenoconazole + cyproconazole 1 L/tonne 0,7 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat 45.2 49.5 - - 110 Var. Rufa. Foliar treatment with full rate of flurtiafol-based fungicide 0.5 L/hectare, decreased rate - 0.35 L/hectare + Albit 40 ml/hectare. Esentuki-khleb OSC, 2005
    56. difenoconazole + cyproconazole 1.5 L/tonne 0,7 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne spring barley Rhynchosporium leaf spot 0 90 45.1 56.4 - - 125 Efficiency was calculated regarding to variant treated with full rate of difenoconazole/cyproconazolebased fungicide (considered as 0) Tillering in variant with Albit treatment is 1.7 shoots/plant, in control - 1.2. Vlad imir Regional Plant Protection Station, 2003
    57. difenoconazole 1 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring wheat Helminthosporium rot 100 21.7 - - Trial was carried out in anomalous cold and wet 2001 (Kurgan oblast). Yield in control was 11.0 centners/hectare. Kurgan Regional Plant Protection Station, 2001
    58. difenoconazole 1 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring wheat different seed moulds 100 21.7 - - Trial was carried out in anomalous cold and wet 2001 (Kurgan oblast).Yield in control was 11.0 centners/hectare. Kurgan Regional Plant Protection Station, 2001
    59. difenoconazole 1 L/tonne 30 g/tonne spring wheat Fuzarium head blight 100 21.7 - - Trial was carried out in anomalous cold and wet 2001 (Kurgan oblast).Yield in control was 11.0 centners/hectare. Kurgan Regional Plant Protection Station, 2001
    60. flutriafol 0.5 L/hectare 0,35 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat 57 64.7 - - 114 Var. Krasnodarskaya 99. Presowing seed treatment with full rate of difenoconazole/cyproconazolebased fungicide - 1 L/tonne; with decreased rate - 0.5 L/tonne + Albit 40 ml/tonne. Esentuki-khleb OSC, 2005
    61. flutriafol 0.5 L/hectare 0,35 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat 45.2 49.5 - - 110 Var. Rufa. Presowing seed treatment with full rate of difenoconazole/cyproconazolebased fungicide - 1 L/tonne; with decreased rate - 0.5 L/tonne + Albit 40 ml/tonne. Esentuki-khleb OSC, 2005
    62. carbendazim + carboxin 2.5 L/tonne 1,25 L/tonne 30 ml/hectare spring wheat loose smut 85 80 21.5 23 42,04 62,56 94 107 Combination with Albit and carbendazim-based fungicide increased germination and germination power (by 3-7%), ear lenght (from 6.6 to 8.2 cm), weight of 1000 seeds (from 27.5 to 29 g) as compared to treatment with pure fungicide. Yield in control was 17.5 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2002
    63. carbendazim 1 L/tonne 40 g/tonne winter wheat root rots 100 - - Average yield was 45-49 centners/hectare with gluten content of 23-29% and Index of Gluten Deformation of 65-95. Improved winter survival of plants and drought resistance. Cost of treatment (comparing to that of full rate of fungicide) decreased approx. two-fold. Ecologiya LLC, 1999-2002
    64. carbendazim + carboxin 2.5 L/tonne 1,25 L/tonne 30 ml/hectare spring wheat root rots 50 43 21.5 23 42,04 62,56 86 107 Combination of Albit and carbendazim-based fungicide increased germination and germination power germination and germination power (by 3-7%), ear lenght (from 6.6 to 8.2 cm). 1000 (from 27.5 to 29 g) as compared to treatment with pure fungicide. Yield in control was 17.5 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2002
    65. mancozeb + metalaxyl + spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol + sulphur 250 / vine downy mildew 92 99 128 132 - - 108 Trial was carried out in Yubileynoe collective farm on var. Risling. Efficiency was calculated at 15th day after treatment basing on increase of bunch weight over control. North-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2004
    66. mancozeb + metalaxyl + spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol + sulphur 250 / vine powdery
    mildew
    85 95 128 132 - - 112 Trial was carried out in Yubileynoe collective farm on var. Risling. Data on disease prevalence and development were taken at 20 Jul and 13 Aug. Yield was calculated basing on increase of bunch weight over control. North-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2004
    67. CuCl 2*3CuO 4H 2O + cymoxanil 1 / 40 ml/hectare potato late blight 100 100 250 350 - - 100 140 In combination with Albit, halved doses of Cu/oxadixyl-based fungicide used insted of Cu/cymoxanil-based fungicide provided analogous results. The analogous results of trials with Albit were obtained in preceeding 2002 and 2003. Comparing to application of full rate of the fungicide, the reduction of treatment expenses was 100-200 USD. Odoyevskie zori collective farm, 2004
    68. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 ml/tonne spring barley root rots 72 68 26 25.7 3,48 6,6 94 99 Instead of net profit from 1 hectare, the profitability (%) was used. In case of application of full rate of tebuconazole-based fungicide, the profitability was 90%, application of halved dose of the fungicide + Albit provided 150% of profitability. Yield increase in variant with halved dose of the fungicide (without Albit) was 9.5%, efficiency against root rots - 56.6%. Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004
    69. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 ml/tonne spring barley loose smut 79 64 26 25.7 3,48 6,6 81 99 Instead of net profit from 1 hectare, the profitability (%) was used. In case of application of full rate of tebuconazole-based fungicide, the profitability was 90%, application of halved dose of the fungicide + Albit provided 150% of profitability. Yield increase in variant with halved dose of the fungicide (without Albit) was 9.5%, efficiency against root rots - 56.6%. Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004
    70. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,25 L/tonne 30 ml/tonne spring barley stinking smut 93 75 26 25.7 3,48 6,6 81 99 Instead of net profit from 1 hectare, the profitability (%) was used. In case of application of full rate of tebuconazole-based fungicide, the profitability was 90%, application of halved dose of the fungicide + Albit provided 150% of profitability. Yield increase in variant with halved dose of the fungicide (without Albit) was 9.5%, efficiency against root rots - 56.6%. Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004
    71. tebuconazole 1.5 g/tonne 0,75 g/tonne 30 g/tonne spring wheat brown rust 38 52 38.3 39.9 10,64 17,2 137 104 Yield in control was 34.3 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2002
    72. tebuconazole 1.5 g/tonne 0,75 g/tonne 30 ml/tonne spring barley brown rust 17 37 38.9 39.7 1,84 5,2 218 102 Yield in control was 37.1 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2002
    73. tebuconazole 1.5 g/tonne 0,75 g/tonne 30 g/tonne spring wheat Septoria leaf
    spot
    35 46 38.3 39.9 10,64 17,2 131 104 Yield in control was 34.3 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2002
    74. tebuconazole 0.75 g/tonne 1,5 g/tonne 30 ml/tonne spring barley Septoria leaf
    spot
    22 43 38.9 39.7 1,84 5,2 195 102 Yield in control was 37.1 centners/hectare. Soil Institute and Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station 2002
    75. tebuconazole 0,7 g/tonne 30 g/tonne winter wheat stinking smut 100 - - Trial was carried out in Progress collective farm. Saratov Regional Plant Protection Station, 2001
    76. epoxiconazole 0.8 L/hectare 0,4 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat brown rust and other rusts 87 84 54.1 54.8 - - 97 101 Efficiency of halved dose of epoxiconazole-based fubgicide (without Albit)was 45-56%, yield increase 9%. Yield in control was 45.4 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 2004
    77. epoxiconazole 0.8 L/hectare 0,4 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot and other
    leaf spots
    76 76 54.1 54.8 - - 100 101 Efficiency of halved dose of epoxiconazole-based fubgicide (without Albit)was 45-56%, yield increase 9%. Yield in control was 45.4 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 2004
    78. mancozeb + mefenoxam + spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol + CuCl 2*3CuO 4H 2O + sulphur + flutriafol 250 / vine downy mildew 93 91 125 135 - - 98 Trial was carried out in Golubaya bukhta collective farm on vine var. Chardonnay . Data on disease prevalence and development were taken at 20 Jul and 11 Aug. Treatment with chemical standard provided plumpness of a bunch of 4.4 points, whereas treatment with chemical standard/Albit combination 4.8 points. Yield was calculated basing on weight of bunch (in untreated control 100%). North-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2004
    79. mancozeb + mefenoxam + spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol + CuCl 2*3CuO 4H 2O + sulphur + flutriafol 250 / vine powdery mildew 100 100 125 135 - - 100 Trial was carried out in Golubaya bukhta collective farm on vine var. Chardonnay . Data on disease prevalence and development were taken at 20 Jul and 11 Aug. Treatment with chemical standard provided plumpness of a bunch of 4.4 points, whereas treatment with chemical standard/Albit combination 4.8 points. Yield was calculated basing on weight of bunch (in untreated control 100%). North-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2004
    80. difenoconazole 0.75 /- 55 /- 5 /- apple scab 79/93 75/87 - - 94 Full dose of difenoconazole-based fungicide provided photosinthetic leaf activity (Fv/Fm) of 0.73 units, whereas its combination with Albit provided 0.75 units. Also, combination with Albit provided 8% increased catalase activity, that characterise ability of apple to resist diseases. BE calculated in accordance with scheme leaves/fruits. Michurin All-Russia Institute of Horticulture, 2002
    81. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,35 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat 53 58.8 0 55,68 111 Var. Ermak. Foliar spraying with full rate of propiconazole-based fungicide - 0.5 L/hectare, with decreased - 0.35 L/hectare + Albit 40 ml/hectare. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    82. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,35 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat 52.8 53.2 0 3,84 101 Var. Yubileynaya 100. Foliar spraying with full rate of propiconazole-based fungicide - 0.5 L/hectare, with decreased - 0.35 L/hectare + Albit 40 ml/hectare. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    83. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,35 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat 5 6 65.8 0 94,08 118 Var. Lira. Foliar spraying with full rate of propiconazole-based fungicide - 0.5 L/hectare, with decreased - 0.35 L/hectare + Albit 40 ml/hectare. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    84. tebuconazole 0.5 L/tonne 0,35 L/tonne 40 ml/tonne winter wheat 43 49 0 57,6 114 Var. Deya. Foliar spraying with full rate of propiconazole-based fungicide - 0.5 L/hectare, with decreased - 0.35 L/hectare + Albit 40 ml/hectare. Ulyanovets LLC, 2005
    85. thiram 4 g/tonne 2 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne pea root rots 39 35 20.5 20.7 - - 90 101 BE was determined in budding stage. Yield in control was 16.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2004
    86. thiram 4 g/tonne 2 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne pea root rots 23 25 20.5 20.7 - - 109 101 BE was determined in bean setting satage. Yield in control was 16.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2004
    87. thiram 4 g/tonne 2 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne pea root rots 60 60 20.5 20.1 - - 100 98 BE was determined in budding stage. Yield in control was 17.2 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2005
    88. thiram 4 g/tonne 2 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne pea root rots 60 60 20.5 20.1 - - 100 98 BE was determined in bean setting satage. Yield in control was 17.2 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2005
    89. thiram 4 g/tonne 2 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne pea root rots 100 100 29 30.3 - - 100 104 BE was determined in budding satage. Yield in control was 26.3 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2006
    90. thiram 4 g/tonne 2 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne pea root rots 30 30 29 30.3 - - 100 104 BE was determined in bean setting satage. Yield in control was 26.3 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2006
    91. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 2,2 L/tonne 150 ml/tonne potato common scab 70 79 230 234 - - 113 102 Treatment variants with participation of Albit provided earlier coming-up. In variant with decreased fungicide rate, additional foliar spraying with Albit (40 g/hectare) was used. Yield in control was 217 centners/hectare. Meristemnye kultury collective farm, 2003
    92. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 2,2 L/tonne 150 ml/tonne potato Rhyzoctonia disease 63 65 230 234 - - 103 102 Treatment variants with participation of Albit provided earlier coming-up. In variant with decreased fungicide rate, additional foliar spraying with Albit (40 g/hectare) was used. Yield in control was 217 centners/hectare. Meristemnye kultury collective farm, 2003
    93. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 68 91 43 47 - - 134 109 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    94. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 68 91 52 54 - - 134 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    95. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 68 91 45 47 - - 13 4 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    96. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 81 94 35 39 - - 116 111 Yield in control was 31.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    97. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 81 94 48 51 - - 116 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    98. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 81 94 45 48 - - 116 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    99. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 68 91 36 40 - - 134 111 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Yield in control was 33.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    100. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 68 91 47 50 - - 134 106 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    101. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 68 91 45 48 - - 134 107 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    102. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 60 80 38 44 - - 133 116 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    103. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 60 80 51 54 - - 133 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    104. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 60 80 48 51 - - 133 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    105. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 40 84 43 47 - - 210 109 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    106. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 40 84 52 54 - - 210 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    107. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 40 84 45 47 - - 210 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    108. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 50 96 35 39 - - 192 111 Yield in control was 31.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    109. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 50 96 48 51 - - 192 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    110. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 50 96 45 48 - - 192 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    111. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 38 88 36 40 - - 232 111 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Yield in control was 33.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    112. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 38 88 47 50 - - 232 106 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    113. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 38 88 45 48 - - 232 107 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    114. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 24 69 38 44 - - 288 116 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    115. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 24 69 51 54 - - 288 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    116. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 24 69 48 51 - - 288 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    117. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 53 82 43 47 - - 155 109 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    118. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 53 82 52 54 - - 155 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    119. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 53 82 45 47 - - 155 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    120. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 79 92 35 39 - - 116 111 Yield in control was 31.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    121. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 79 92 48 51 - - 116 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    122. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 79 92 45 48 - - 116 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    123. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 66 84 36 40 - - 127 111 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 57%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Yield in control was 33.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    124. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 66 84 47 50 - - 127 106 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 57%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    125. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 66 84 45 48 - - 127 107 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 57%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    126. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 54 63 38 44 - - 117 116 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    127. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 54 63 51 54 - - 117 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    128. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 54 63 48 51 - - 117 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    129. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 5 10 43 47 - - 200 109 Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    130. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 84 87 52 54 - - 104 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    131. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 24 28 45 47 - - 117 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 43.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    132. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 6 14 35 39 - - 233 111 Yield in control was 31.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    133. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 78 83 48 51 - - 106 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    134. thiram 4.5 L/tonne 3 L/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 20 25 45 48 - - 125 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    135. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 8 23 36 40 - - 288 111 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 57%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%.Yield in control was 33.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    136. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 58 62 47 50 - - 107 106 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 57%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%.Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    137. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 19 27 45 48 - - 142 107 Germination: in control - 54%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 57%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 61%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 42.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    138. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 10 19 38 44 - - 190 116 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    139. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 62 71 51 54 - - 115 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 48.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    140. thiram 4.5 g/tonne 3 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 33 43 48 51 - - 130 106 Germination: in control - 51%, in variant with thiram-based fungicide 53%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 57%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 44.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    141. thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne Ascochyta leaf and pod spots 67 67 16.1 17.4 - - 100 108 Weight of 1000 beans and number of pods are the largest in variant of treatment with thiram-based fungicide + Albit. Yield in control was 14.1 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004
    142. thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne Septoria brown spot 59 62 16.1 17.4 - - 105 108 Weight of 1000 beans and number of pods are the largest in variant of treatment with thiram-based fungicide + Albit. Yield in control was 14.1 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004
    143. thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne Fusarium
    seedling
    root rot
    73 76 16.1 17.4 - - 104 108 Weight of 1000 beans and number of pods are the largest in variant of treatment with thiram-based fungicide + Albit. Yield in control was 14.1 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004
    144. spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol 0.6 L/hectare 0,3 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat brown rust and other rusts 91 89 54.4 54.3 - - 98 100 Efficiency of the halved dose of spiroxamine/tebuconazole/triadimenol-based fungicide was 48-60%, while yeld increase was 9.9% . Yield in control was 45.4 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 2004
    145. spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol 0.6 L/hectare 0,3 L/hectare 40 ml/hectare winter wheat Septoria leaf
    spot and other
    leaf spots
    81 80 54.4 54.3 - - 99 100 Efficiency of the halved dose of spiroxamine/tebuconazole/triadimenol-based fungicide was 48-60%, while yeld increase was 9.9%. Yield in control was 45.4 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 2004
    146. spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol + flutriafol + karbendazim + sulphur - - 250 / vine powdery mildew 97 90 - - - - 93 - Savings on means of protection was 60 USD/hectare. North-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2006
    147. spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol + flutriafol + karbendazim + sulphur - - 250 / vine white rot 76 33 - - - - 43 - Savings on means of protection was 60 USD/hectare. North-Caucasian Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, 2006
    148. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 92 28 29 - - 100 104 Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    149. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 92 30 31 - - 100 103 Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 27.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    150. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 92 31 34 - - 100 110 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 26.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    151. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 92 34 35 - - 100 103 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    152. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 92 28 29 - - 100 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare. Yield in control was 23.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    153. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 92 30 32 - - 100 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    154. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 41 45 - - 100 110 Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    155. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 47 49 - - 100 104 Additional treatment: Benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 45.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    156. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 49 52 - - 100 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    157. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 45 47 - - 100 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    158. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 33 38 57 127,2 100 115 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    159. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 41 44 72,2 126,4 100 107 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 38.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    160. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 43 48 78 154 100 112 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    161. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 95 95 39 42 70 124,2 100 108 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    162. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 96 31 35 - - 104 113 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with carboxin/thiram -based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    163. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 96 40 43 - - 104 108 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with carboxin/thiram -based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    164. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 96 42 46 - - 104 110 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with carboxin/thiram -based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 36.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    165. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax anthracnose 92 96 37 41 - - 104 111 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with carboxin/thiram -based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    166. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax anthracnose 82 86 30 33 - - 105 110 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Yield in control was 21.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    167. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax anthracnose 82 86 40 43 - - 105 108 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    168. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax anthracnose 82 86 42 45 - - 105 107 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 34.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    169. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax anthracnose 82 86 34 40 - - 105 118 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 30.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    170. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 46 86 28 29 - - 187 104 Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    171. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 46 86 30 31 - - 187 103 Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 27.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    172. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 46 86 31 34 - - 187 110 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 26.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    173. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 46 86 34 35 - - 187 103 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    174. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 46 86 28 29 - - 187 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare. Yield in control was 23.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    175. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 46 86 30 32 - - 187 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    176. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 43 89 41 45 - - 207 110 Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    177. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 43 89 47 49 - - 207 104 Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 45.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    178. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 43 89 49 52 - - 207 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    179. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 43 89 45 47 - - 207 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    180. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 43 89 8 15 - - 207 188 All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    181. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 48 92 33 38 57 127,2 192 115 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    182. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 48 92 41 44 72,2 126,4 192 107 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: Benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 38.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    183. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 48 92 43 48 78 154 192 112 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    184. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 48 92 39 42 70 124,2 192 108 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    185. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 41 93 31 35 - - 227 113 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    186. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 41 93 40 43 - - 227 108 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    187. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 41 93 42 46 - - 227 110 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 36.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    188. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax bacteriosis 41 93 37 41 - - 227 111 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    189. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax bacteriosis 33 73 30 33 - - 221 110 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Yield in control was 21.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    190. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax bacteriosis 33 73 40 43 - - 221 108 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    191. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax bacteriosis 33 73 42 45 - - 221 107 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 34.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    192. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax bacteriosis 33 73 34 40 - - 221 118 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 30.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    193. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 89 89 28 29 - - 100 104 Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    194. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 89 89 30 31 - - 100 103 Additional treatment: Benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 27.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    195. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 89 89 31 34 - - 100 110 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 26.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    196. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 89 89 34 35 - - 100 103 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    197. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 89 89 28 29 - - 100 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare. Yield in control was 23.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    198. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 70 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 89 89 30 32 - - 100 107 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    199. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 87 93 41 45 - - 107 110 Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    200. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 87 93 47 49 - - 107 104 Additional treatment: Benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 45.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    201. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 87 93 49 52 - - 107 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    202. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 87 93 45 47 - - 107 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    203. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 92 97 33 38 57 127,2 105 115 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    204. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 92 97 41 44 72,2 126,4 105 107 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 38.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    205. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 92 97 43 48 78 154 105 112 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    206. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 92 97 39 42 70 124,2 105 108 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    207. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 89 31 35 - - 105 113 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    208. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 89 40 43 - - 105 108 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    209. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 89 42 46 - - 105 110 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 36.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    210. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 89 37 41 - - 105 111 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    211. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 90 30 33 - - 106 110 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Yield in control was 21.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    212. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 90 40 43 - - 106 108 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ (Lenok+ . Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    213. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 90 42 45 - - 106 107 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 34.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    214. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax ozoniosis 85 90 34 40 - - 106 118 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 30.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    215. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 18 21 41 45 - - 117 110 Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    216. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 89 90 47 49 - - 101 104 Additional treatment: benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 45.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    217. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 89 90 49 52 - - 101 106 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 46.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    218. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 34 38 45 47 - - 112 104 Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003
    219. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 10 13 33 38 57 127,2 130 115 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    220. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 78 84 41 44 72,2 126,4 108 107 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: Benomyl-based fungicide + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 38.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    221. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 74 80 43 48 78 154 108 112 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 40.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    222. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 17 26 39 42 70 124,2 153 108 Combination of fungicide with Albit considerably improved fibre quality: application of halved dose of carboxin/thiram based fungicide with Albit provided increase of average number of fibre by 11 units (comparing to application of pure fungicide). Increase of percent-number of fibre: pure fungicide - 26%; Albit/fungicide 65%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 37.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004
    223. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 15 38 31 35 - - 253 113 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Yield in control was 25.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    224. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 75 78 40 43 - - 104 108 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 35.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    225. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 73 75 42 46 - - 103 110 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 36.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    226. carboxin + thiram 2g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne flax pasmo disease 33 40 37 41 - - 121 111 Germination: in control - 53%, in variant with thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 56%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 60%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005
    227. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax pasmo disease 21 26 30 33 - - 124 110 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Yield in control was 21.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    228. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax pasmo disease 74 74 40 43 - - 100 108 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: 1 kg/hectare+ herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 32.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    229. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax pasmo disease 74 77 42 45 - - 104 107 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: Albit 50 g/hectare + herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 34.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    230. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne flax pasmo disease 24 26 34 40 - - 108 118 Germination: in control - 48%, in variant with carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide 51%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 55%. Additional treatment: herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-ethyl. Yield in control was 30.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006
    231. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 25.8 26.2 - - 102 Var. Pobeda 50. Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    232. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter whe at 23.3 24.5 - - 105 Var. Pobeda 50. Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    233. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 27.2 29.1 - - 107 Var. Don-95. Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    234. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter whe at 24 26.7 - - 111 Var. Don-95. Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    235. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 26.7 28 - - 105 Var. Donskaya bezostaya Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    236. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 25.5 25.4 - - 100 Var. Donskaya bezostaya . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    237. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 29.4 28.4 - - 97 Var. Prikumskaya 110 . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    238. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 27.4 28.4 - - 104 Var. Prikumskaya 110 . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    239. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 23.5 25.1 - - 107 Var. Prikumchanka . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    240. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 22.6 23.8 - - 105 Var. Prikumchanka . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    241. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 27.3 29.3 - - 107 Var. Prikumskaya 124 . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    242. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 g/tonne winter wheat 25.7 27.5 - - 107 Var. Prikumskaya 124 . Prikumskiy selektsioner LLC, 2004
    243. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne head smut 100 100 34.4 - - 100 Trial was performed under artificially high infectious conditions (92-95% infestation). Combinationof carboxin/thiram/carboxin-based fungicide with Albit increased (comparing to pure fungicide): field germination by 3-10%, number and weight of seeds from one plant, weight of 1000 seed. Yield in control was 29.9 centners/hectare. Albit 50 ml/tonne 34.2 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2002
    244. carboxin + thiram 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 50 ml/tonne head smut 100 100 33.2 - - 100 Trial was performed under artificially high infectious conditions (92-95% infestation). Yield in control was 30.3 centners/hectare. Yield in variant treated with Albit only (50 ml/tonne) was 32.8 centners/hectare. All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops, 2003
    245. benomyl 1 / 0,5 / 50 / flax anthracnose 50 50 27 29 - - 100 107 Foliar spraying was carried out jointly with herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Yield in control was 22.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    246. benomyl 1 / 0,5 / 50 / flax anthracnose 70 70 30 34 - - 100 113 Foliar spraying was carried out jointly with herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Seeds were treated with carboxin/thiram based fungicide. Yield in control was 28.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    247. benomyl 1 / 0,5 / 50 / flax anthracnose 70 60 30 34 - - 86 113 Foliar spraying was carried out jointly with herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Seeds were treated with Albit 50 g/tonne. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    248. benomyl 1 / 0,5 / 50 / flax anthracnose 80 80 31 35 - - 100 113 Foliar spraying was carried out jointly with herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Seeds were treated with carboxin/thiram based fungicide + Albit 50 g/tonne. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    249. benomyl 1 / 0,5 / 50 / flax anthracnose 70 70 31 36 - - 100 116 Foliar spraying was carried out jointly with herbicides based on chlorsulfuron and quizalofop-p-tefuryl. Seeds were treated with Albit 70 g/tonne. Yield in control was 29.0 centners/hectare. All-Russia Flax Institute, 2002
    250. benomyl 2 g/tonne 1 g/tonne 30 ml/hectare head smut 100 100 14.7 17 7,832 19,904 100 116 Germination: in control - 97%, in variant with carboxin/thiram -based fungicide 87%, in variant with combination of the fungicide and Albit 93%. Application of combination of the fungicide and Albit increased panicle length by 4.87 cm, weight of 1000 seeds by 0.21 g; application of pure fungicide did not increase these parameters over control ones. Yield in control was 13.1 centners/hectare. Agricultural Scientific Institute of South-East, 2004
    251. CuCl 2 3CuO 4H 2O + dimethoate + flutriafol + mancozeb + dimethomorph + sulphur + dithianon 200 ml/hectare vine downy mildew 95 98 - - 103 Application rates of fungicides were decreased twice. Addition of Albit to complex of fungicides suppressed development of diseases up to 1.5 months. All-Russia Institute of Viticulture and Vine Processing, 2003
    252. CuCl 2*3CuO 4H 2O + dimethoate + flutriafol + mancozeb + dimethomorph + sulphur + dithianon 200 ml/hectare vine powdery mildew 55 84 - - 153 Application rates of fungicides were decreased twice. Addition of Albit to complex of fungicides suppressed development of diseases up to 1.5 months. All-Russia Institute of Viticulture and Vine Processing, 2003
    Note: yield of flax means yield of flax straw.

     

    According to presented results of the trials, one can conclude, that application of combination of Albit and reduced dose of pesticide in comparison to full dose of the pesticide provides better protection of plants against diseases (by 30% in terms of biological efficiency) and provides yield increase of 7% while net profit is increased twice (data on efficiency of seed treatment agents against leaf infections were not taken into account).

    Albit actually increases effectiveness of chemical fungicides. Here are mechanisms which are in charge of this phenomenon:

    1) Most chemical fungicides cause more or less pronounced stress influence on plants, that are manifested in growth retardation, decreased germination, increased sensitivity of plants to diseases, pests, temperature jumps, etc. For example, the retarding influence of azole class of fungicides (tebuconazole, difenoconazol, diniconazole, etc.) towards germination is widely known. Fungicides of dimethyldithiocarbamate class (thiram) whose targets (oxidation of succinate in Krebs cycle) exist in cells of both pathogenic fungi and plant hosts, also is able to intoxicate plants. This problem is even more actual for pesticides of first generation which do not damage plants seriously just because they penetrate into pathogenic fungi faster than into the plant cells. As it was shown in our tests, fungicides might cause stress effect during whole period of plant growth (Table 14).

     

    Table 14. Influence of treatments with chemical seed treatment fungicide and combination of fungicide + Albit on main characteristics of spring barley growth in plot trials (Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, 2003).
    Characteristic Variants of treatment
    Control set (without treatment) thiabendazole/flutriafol based fungicide, 1,5 L/tonne thiabendazole/flutriafol based fungicide, 1,5 L/tonne + Albit, 40 ml/tonne
    Germination under field conditions, % 80.9 59.1 81.3
    Weight of overground part of germs (% over control) 100 80 98
    Weight of germ roots (% over control) 100 94 100
    Stem density 3.9 3.8 4.3
    Ear length, cm 6 5.9 6.3
    Yield of straw, g/plant 2.67 2.64 2.78
    Yield of grain, g/m² 985 1011 1058

     

    Albit is able to relieve stress effect of fungicides. According to data of Department of Agrochemistry of Moscow State University (2000), antistress (antidote) activity of Albit towards fungicides was 24.6% on average, in trials of All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2004) it varied from 7 to 62%. Demonstrable example of Albit-mediated relieving of growth retardation of barley caused by chemical fungicide is presented on Fig. 10. Owing to Albit, chemical fungicides can get rid of their collateral plant growth retarding effects while their fungicidal activity against pathogens remains intact. Therefore, even decreased doses of fungicides in presence of Albit are able to demonstrate more pronounced protective effect.

    2) It is established, that Albit possesses pronounced immunogenic activity via inducing natural mechanisms of plant resistance to diseases (systematic acquired resistance, reaction of hypersensitivity). Due to this activity, Albit virtually compensates fungicidal activity of chemical pesticide decreased in result of application rate reduction. Immunization of plants is able to easily compensate considerable reduction of application rates of many fungicides, which are (in some cases) quite overrated.

    3) Many fungicides visibly weaken plant immune status (ability to resist infections). They protect plants from diseases during their period of action, making plants more disease-sensitive after. For example, presowing seed treatment against root rots might make plants more sensitive to leaf infections. Being an active immunizer, Albit abolishes this effect.

    4) High ecological compatibility of Albit is both its advantage and disadvantage. Since Albit consists of natural metabolites of soil bacteria, it is easily degraded by saprophyte non-pathogenic microflora living on surface of seeds and plant leaves (Penicillia, Aspergilli, yeasts, bacteria) and often do not has enough time to influence on plants properly. Therefore, even small amount of chemical fungicide, applied together with Albit, suppresses activity of microflora and protects Albit from degradation, that visibly increases Albits efficiency. Chemical fungicide acts in this case as a preservative. It is the reason why combinations of Albit with fungicides below 50% of their recommended application rate are quite effective sometimes.

    For example, in trials carried out by Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms (2004) on spring barley, addition of even 10% of recommended dose of fungicides suppressed development of pathogenic microflora and increased biological efficiency of Albit against root rots from 36 to 100%. In field trials carried out by All-Russia Institute of Leguminous and Groat Crops on spring barley (2005), presowing seed treatment with combination of Albit and 13% of recommended dose of thiabendazole/flutriafol based fungicide, provided yield increase of 32% over control, whereas treatment with full dose of the fungicide provided just 14% of yield increase; treatment with Albit only provided 11% of yield increase. Both Albit/fungicide and fungicide only treatments provided 100% protection from root rots of barley, but Albit/fungicide treated plants demonstrated visibly accelerated growth, see in details here.

    Thus, joint application of chemical fungicides and Albit lead to synergism mutual reinforcement of their fungicidal activity. This phenomenon might be presented schematically (Fig. 18).

     

    Fig. 18. Schematic description of mutual reinforcement of jointly used Albit and chemical fungicides.

     

    In some cases, when decrease of fungicide application rate is undesirable (smut infection, epiphytotic development of diseases, etc.), Albit might be used in combination with full application rate of fungicide. Such treatment relives stress caused by fungicides, that notably increases yield while fungicidal activity remains intact. However, even in this case one can use the minimum recommended rate.

    Albit consists of purified active substances of microbal origin instead of living bacteria (like most other biostimulants). This important feature makes possible application of Albit without reduction of its activity even in combination with toxic chemical fungicides.

    In other words, Albit as fungicide-immunizer complements and reinforces the effect of fungicides of direct biocidal action. For example, if biological efficacy of chemical fungicide against root rots is 60%, in variant with Albit, biological efficacy will be 100%. Moreover, adding of Albit to fungicide allows to obtain yield increase (12.0% over pure fungicide application). This is average mean according to data of a lot of field trials (able 3).

     

    Table 3. Results of field trials on combined application of Albit with full doses of fungicides and seed protectants

    Fungicide (a.i.)

    Crop

    Yield, t/h

    Yield increase in variant with Albit + fungicide over pure fungicide application

    Location of trial, year

    Note

    Fungicide

    Fungicide + Albit

    t/h

    %

    1

    Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    36.8

    36.9

    0.01

    0

    Lipetsk Plant Protection Station, 2003

    var. Odesskii-115

    2

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    sunflower

    23.4

    27.8

    0.44

    19

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Luchefer

    3

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    winter wheat

    48.2

    56.4

    0.82

    17

    Breeding Farm Kuban, Krasnodar krai, 2004

    var. Vita. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit 30 mL/h was conducted with herbicide for foliar spraying

    4

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    24.6

    27.5

    0.29

    12

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya zolotistaya

    5

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    24.6

    28.4

    0.38

    15

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya zolotistaya. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit was conducted for foliar spraying

    6

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    26.5

    28.8

    0.23

    9

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya 57 (optimal seeding period)

    7

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    26.5

    30.3

    0.38

    14

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya 57 (optimal seeding period). In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit was conducted for foliar spraying

    8

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    25.1

    26.4

    0.13

    5

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya 57 (late seeding period)

    9

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    25.1

    27.1

    0.2

    8

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya 57 (late seeding period). In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit was conducted for foliar spraying

    10

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    winter barley

    44.7

    55.6

    1.09

    24

    Breeding Farm Kuban, Krasnodar krai, 2004

    var. Hutorok. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit 30 mL/h was conducted with herbicide for foliar spraying

    11

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    38.3

    40.2

    0.19

    5

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Lakomb

    12

    Thiabendazole + Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    38.3

    42.4

    0.41

    11

    Potato farm Panichkina P.A.
    Saratov oblast, 2006

    var. Lakomb. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit was conducted for foliar spraying

    13

    Difenoconazole + Cyproconazole

    spring wheat

    11.5

    12.0

    0.05

    4

    Closed Joint Stock Company Mayak, Orenburg oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya 42. Herbicide treatments were conducted at the tillering stage

    14

    Difenoconazole + Cyproconazole

    spring wheat

    10.3

    13.4

    0.31

    30

    Orenburg State Agrarian University, Orenburg oblast, 2006

    var. YuV-2. Herbicide treatments were conducted at the tillering stage

    15

    Difenoconazole + Cyproconazole

    winter barley

    56.0

    62.7

    0.67

    12

    Chapaev Breeding Farm, Krasnodar krai, 2005

    var. Fedor. In both variants, seeds were additionally treated with lignohumate. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit 30 mL/h was conducted with herbicide for foliar spraying

    16

    Difenoconazole + Cyproconazole

    spring barley

    39.1

    52.3

    1.32

    34

    Vladimir Plant Protection Station, 2004

    var. Zazerskii 85

    17

    Triticonazole

    winter wheat

    53.7

    57.6

    0.39

    7

    Chapaev Breeding Farm, Krasnodar krai, 2003

    var. Batko

    18

    Triticonazole

    winter wheat

    54.2

    60.3

    0.61

    11

    Chapaev Breeding Farm, Krasnodar krai, 2005

    var. Milenium. In both variants, seeds were additionally treated with lignohumate 200 g/t. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit 30 mL/h was conducted with herbicide for foliar spraying

    19

    Triticonazole

    winter wheat

    60.9

    66.1

    0.52

    9

    Chapaev Breeding Farm, Krasnodar krai, 2005

    var. Milenium. In both variants, seeds were additionally treated with lignohumate 200 g/t. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit 30 mL/h was conducted with herbicide for foliar spraying

    20

    Triticonazole

    winter wheat

    54.1

    60.1

    0.60

    11

    Chapaev Breeding Farm, Krasnodar krai, 2005

    var. Milenium. In both variants, seeds were additionally treated with lignohumate 200 g/t. In variant with Albit + fungicide, additional treatment with Albit 30 mL/h was conducted with herbicide for foliar spraying

    21

    Triticonazole

    winter wheat

    32.0

    36.0

    0.40

    13

    Agro-industrial complex Yunost
    Orel oblast, 2006

    var. Nemchinovskaya 24

    22

    Triticonazole

    spring barley

    21.1

    29.3

    0.82

    39

    Vladimir Plant Protection Station, 2004

    var. Zazerskii 85

    23

    Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    36.8

    36.9

    0.01

    0

    Lipetsk Plant Protection Station, 2002

    var. Odesskii-115

    24

    Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    26.0

    27.9

    0.19

    7

    All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004

    var. Odesskii-110

    25

    Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    24.1

    25.7

    0.16

    7

    All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004

    var. Odesskii-110. In both variants, half dose of fungicide was applied

    26

    Tebuconazole

    spring barley

    23.2

    25.5

    0.23

    10

    All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004

    var. Odesskii-110. In both variants, 2 fold dose of fungicide was applied

    27

    Tebuconazole

    winter wheat

    31.0

    34.5

    0.35

    11

    Opened Joint Stock Company Agrofest-Orel, Orel oblast, 2006

    var. Moskovskaya 39

    28

    Tebuconazole

    spring wheat

    15.1

    15.2

    0.01

    1

    Closed Joint Stock Company Mayak,
    Orenburg oblast, 2006

    var. Saratovskaya 42. At the tillering stage, treatment with herbicides was applied

    29

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    43.0

    47.0

    0.40

    9

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial without application of herbicides)

    30

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    52.0

    54.0

    0.20

    4

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides and foliar spraying with Albit 50 mL/h)

    31

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    45.0

    47.0

    0.20

    4

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2003

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides – a.i. potassium salt of chlorsulfuron 790 g/kg for acid or 850 g/kg for salt + quizalofop-P-tefuryl with doses 5 g/h and 1 kg/h, respectively)

    32

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    35.0

    39.0

    0.40

    11

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial without application of herbicides)

    33

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    48.0

    51.0

    0.30

    6

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides and foliar spraying with Albit 50 mL/h)

    34

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    45.0

    48.0

    0.30

    7

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2004

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides – a.i. potassium salt of chlorsulfuron 790 g/kg for acid or 850 g/kg for salt + quizalofop-P-ethyl with doses 5 g/h and 1.5 L/h, respectively)

    35

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    36.0

    40.0

    0.40

    11

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial without application of herbicides)

    36

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    47.0

    50.0

    0.30

    6

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides and foliar spraying with Albit 50 mL/h)

    37

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    45.0

    48.0

    0.30

    7

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2005

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides – a.i. potassium salt of chlorsulfuron 790 g/kg for acid or 850 g/kg for salt + quizalofop-P-tefuryl with doses 5 g/h and 1.5 kg/h, respectively)

    38

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    38.0

    44.0

    0.60

    16

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial without application of herbicides)

    39

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    51.0

    54.0

    0.30

    6

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides and foliar spraying with Albit 50 mL/h)

    40

    Thiram

    fiber flax

    48.0

    51.0

    0.30

    6

    All-Russia Flax Institute, 2006

    var. -93 (yield of straw, trial with application of herbicides – a.i. potassium salt of chlorsulfuron 790 g/kg for acid or 850 g/kg for salt + hizalofop-p-ethyl with doses 5 g/h and 1.5 L/h, respectively)

    41

    Thiram

    sugar beet

    311.3

    369.0

    5.77

    19

    All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2003

    var. Lgovskaya LMS-94

    42

    Thiram

    sugar beet

    522.0

    845.0

    32.30

    62

    All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, 2004

    var. Lgovskaya 52

    43

    Tebuconazole + Triadimefon

    winter wheat

    55.2

    62.3

    0.71

    13

    Krasnodar Plant Protection Station, 2006

    var. Yubileinaya 100

     

    Albit Scientific and Industrial LLC managed to establish a partnership with regional dealers of leading agrochemical companies (Avgust, BASF, Syngenta, SAHO, Agrorus) in many regions of Russia. In the beginning, dealers were quite hostile to possibility of joint application of Albit with reduced rates of their chemical fungicides, but then they receive evidences, that possibility to combine chemicals with Albit, on the contrary, increases sales of chemicals. Farms that were too poor to buy full assortment of chemicals, now are buying minimal (and then increasing) amounts of chemicals to use them with Albit, that results in increase of total amounts of chemical fungicides sold. New resistant pathogenic strains of microorganisms were not detected in soil on fields, where Albit was applied with chemical products. Additionally, the phytosanitary situation of soil even improves, soil becomes healthier according to data of Ryazan and Saratov regional Plant Protection Stations.

    By now, there are many examples of successful application of fungicide and plant growth stimulator combinations in agricultural practice. For example, addition of plant growth regulators to carboxin/thiram based fungicide Vitavaks 200 lead to creation of new fungicidal seed treatment agent Vitavaks 200 FF which possesses additional plant growth stimulating effect. Possibly, producers of chemical pesticides should review inclusion of Albit into preparative forms of chemicals in manufacturing stage, that would simplify application technology of well reputated mixtures.

    It is necessary to note in conclusion, that application of decreased rates of chemical fungicides has become a wide spread agricultural technique in the most agriculturally advanced regions of Russia (Krasnodar krai, Belgorod oblast, republics of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, etc.). Also, in countries of European Union farmers are additionally subsidized to decrease fungicidal load on fields. Analogous arrangements on decrease consumption of chemical fungicides are undertaken by governments of USA, Japan, Brazil, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It is steady progressive tendency in world agriculture, which can be successfully realized with application of Albit.

    Basing on data of long-term trials, All-Russia Institute of Biological Protection recommended to use plant growth regulators (including Albit) in combination with halved doses of chemical seed treatment agents and fungicides for protection of crops from main diseases. Analogous recommendations were issued by All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Flax Institute, and other institutes.

    In conclusion, it is necessary to note, that combinations of Albit and chemical pesticides must be used strictly according to the application recommendations of corresponding pesticides and under guidance and collaboration of local representatives of manufacturers. Joint application of Albit and decreased rates of fungicides is reasonable only in absence of epiphytotic development of diseases, internal infections and under total infestation below 30%.

     



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