Materials used in this chapter are published in book Biostimulant Albit for
increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov,
Ed. Prof. À. Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.
According to data of field trials, use of Albit for treatment of cereals (
winter and spring wheat, rye, barley) provides average increase of:
- yield by 0,4-15 centners/hectare,
- germination by ,7–15,6 %,
- germination power by 5-10 %,
- tilling capacity by 6,3–56,3 %,
- density of productive stems by 8–140 units/m2,
- root length by 0,7 cm,
- drought resistance by 10–60 %,
- gluten content by 1,6 abs.
% on average (2,3% to control),
- weight of 1000 grains by 0,5-1,4 g,
- ear length by 1,1-1,8 cm,
- number of grains in ear by 0,5-9 units,
as well as: enhanced development of rootlets, acceleration of maturation by
2-10 days decrease of ear emptiness by 20 %.
Biological efficiency of Albit against: root rots is 14-100
%, helminthosporium rot is 14–94 %, septoria leaf spot is 21-100%, brown rust
is 20-91%, powdery mildew is 21-96 %, loose smut is 10-60 %, stinking smut is
10-70%, stem rust is 50–87 %, net blotch 20–94 %.
Seed treatment with Albit protects plants from root rots,
increasing germination, improves rootage and tillering. According to results
of plant examination, it is appropriate to use Albit with half dose
of chemical seed treatment fungicide, that reduces
considerably the cost of treatment while protective effect remains the same
as that of full dose. Application rate of Albit and working solution per
tonne of seeds is 40 ml/tonne and 10 L/tonne respectively, the highest recommended
dose 100 mL/tonne is used to relieve the phytotoxic effect of seed dressing and other stresses.
1 litre of Albit can be used for the treatment of 25-33 tonnes of cereal seeds,
which can be sowed over 100-133 hectares. Accordingly, treatment of seeds for
100 hectares of cereals takes 0,75-1 litre of Albit.
Foliar sprays with Albit promote growth of rootlets and formation
of extra seeds in ear, protect plants from air infections (brown rust, powdery
mildew, septoria leaf spot, etc.), relieve pesticide stress, increase temperature
and drought resistance, accelerate maturing. They be performed at the stages
of tillering– tubering and blossoming. Application rate of Albit and working
solution is 30-40 ml/hectare and 300 L/hectare respectively. Each litre of
Albit is enough for spraying of 25-33 hectares of crops, 100 hectares take
3-4 litres of Albit. To control air infections, Albit should be used before
appearance of the first signs of infections. Joint foliar spray of Albit with
liquid fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides and fungicides is also possible.
The results obtained in the field trials show the high efficiency of treatment
with Albit/herbicide combination of winter wheat and barley
in tillering stage (EC stages 20-29). The plants weakened by
hibernation, root rots and herbicidal stress respond to Albit treatment with
great yield increase, which might reach 10 centners/hectare under field conditions.
As is known, application of herbicides inflicts severe stress on the cereals.
Due to the stress, application of herbicides on spring wheat and barley often
does not result in yield increase, i.e. this method is not economically sound.
Thus, to control weeds, use of more intense mechanical soil treatment and choice
of appropriate predecessor (rye, canola) is necessary, but
the most effective way is using antidotes such as Albit. It ensures the
desired yield increase of herbicide treated cereals. Moreover, herbicidal treatments
decrease plant resistance to air infections that makes additional fungicidal
treatments necessary. Albit as an immunizer abolish this effect of herbicides
and allows avoiding use of expensive fungicides. In case of highly infectious
environment, when using of fungicide is necessary anyway, it is possible to
use foliar spray with combination of Albit/half dose of fungicide that is quite
The first foliar spray (at the stages of tillering– tubering,
EC 20-39) is the most significant one. The second treatment
might be used as an additional agricultural technique (for yield quality improvement
mainly), but it should follow earlier treatments (presowing treatment or 1-st
foliar spraying) anyway. Presowing treatment has greater influence on yield
than on yield quality, whereas foliar sprays are more effective for gluten
content increase. One of the most effective examples is using of Albit
in blossoming/ear formation stage (EC 50-69) in combination with insecticide
(against chinch) and urea in southern regions of Russia. Due to relieving of
insecticide stress Albit noticeably increases ability of plants to use urea
nitrogen for protein synthesis that increases the gluten content by 1,2–4,6
% over control (use of insecticide alone). For northern regions, the
second foliar spray is inexpedient.
Also, very effective techniques are:
- The double daily-repeated treatment of cereals with Albit. For example,
use of Albit/herbicide combination for the first day treatment and Albit alone
(or in combination with other pesticides) on the next day. The second treatment
can reinforce the first one more than twofold.
- Use of Albit/humate combination. Maximal Albit-provided detected yield increase
(15 centners/hectare) was detected at joint use of Albit and lignohumate (According
to data of Chapaev pedigree cattle farm, 2003).
The effects of Albit presowing treatment and foliar sprays
to yield increase are almost equal for cereals. Sometimes (when it seems profitable),
it is appropriate to use presowing treatment of foliar spraying alone, but
maximal effectiveness can be reached only in combination of these methods.
One full complex treatment (presowing treatment+2 foliar sprays) takes averagely
90 ml of Albit, 1 litre can be used for treatment of 11,1
Each litre of Albit
provides 50 centners of winter wheat or 39 centners of
spring barley of average extra yield. Due to high profitability, Albit
now is one of the most economically sound means of treatment of cereals. However,
it is necessary to note that Albit works well only under conditions of low
infectious environment. At the danger of intense disease development or in
conditions of epiphytoty, at least partial use of chemical means of plant
protection is desirable despite their high cost.