Albit, plant growth promoter of biological origin – Triticale, winter and spring
Winter and spring triticale
Materials of this chapter are also published in: Zlotnikov A.K. Albit
in the rye and triticale protection system / A.K. Zlotnikov, E.V. Kirsanova,
A.A. Fadeev, Ò.À. Ryabchinskaya, V.Ò. Alyuhin, A.G. Medentsev // Zashchita i
Karantin Rastenii (Plant Protection and Quarantine). – 2020. – ¹ 2. – pp. 14-17
Triticale, a hybrid of wheat and rye, was first bred during the late 19th
century. Triticale has high yield potential, increased grain protein content
(1-1.5% higher than in wheat and 3-4% higher than in rye), and high essential
amino acid content. Fresh matter of triticale has a higher nutritional value
than wheat and rye (0.5-1% more raw protein); triticale is a food and fodder
crop. In Russia, triticale is used in fodder (for pigs, broilers, etc.) and
alcohol production (alcohol yield from triticale grain is 3-5% higher than
in wheat and other cereals). Compared to other grain crops, triticale has increased
frost hardiness, high lodging tolerance, improved resistance to fungal and
viral diseases, and tolerance for low soil quality. The world’s leading producers
of triticale are Poland (10% of all grain crops), Germany, France, and Belarus.
In Russia, triticale is sown on 147.7 thousand hectares of land (2019), which
is 4% higher than in 2018.
Since triticale is an artificially hybridized crop, it has inherited a susceptibility
to diseases affecting both wheat and rye parents. The range of products registered
for triticale disease and stress protection is currently limited. Only three
plant growth regulators and two fungicides are registered for use on triticale
in Russia . One of these products is Biostimulant Albit. Albit, as a growth
regulator, is designed to increase disease resistance, as well as resistance
to unfavorable environmental conditions. Albit also promotes field germination
of triticale, activates growth and developmental processes, increases yield
and improves produce quality of spring and winter triticale (state registration
No. 081-07-866- 1). Albit is also used as an antidote to reduce the phytotoxic
effect of pesticides.
The effect of Albit on triticale was tested in trials of Chuvashia Research
Institute of Agriculture (Chuvashia NIISH) in 2003-2004, All-Russia Research
Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops (VNIIZBK, Orel oblast) in 2009, Romania
(Timis) in 2020, and at other farms and scientific institutions in Russia and
The field trial conducted in Chuvashia NIISH in 2003 examined the effect of
Albit on winter triticale. Albit
treatment was conducted by foliar spraying in autumn; crops
were infested with root rots. The results showed a 70% biological
efficacy of Albit against root rots; the survival rate of
crops was 20% higher than control. Foliar spraying with Albit improved the
crops’ condition: tilling capacity increased by 45.7%, and a vigorous
development occurred in the root system (a 75.9% increase),
as well as in the above-ground part (a 21.2% increase).
In autumn, applying Albit on winter triticale together with fungicides (in
tillering to stem elongation stages) yielded a 2.8% increase in ear length,
a 5.5% increase in the grain number per ear, a 7.7% increase in grain weight,
and a yield increase of 0.55 t/ha (14% above control).
The field trial conducted in the VNIIZBK (Orel oblast) in 2009 examined spring
triticale. Albit exhibited a growth-stimulating effect
in the lab trial: seedling and root length of plants had increased. Seed
treatments with Albit in 50–100 mL/t rate ensured the highest indices of
length. The sowing qualities of seeds improved as well. The germination
rate reached a 6-7% increase in groups where Albit was used as a seed treatment
at the rates of 50, 75, and 100 mL/t.
In 2009, moisture limitations and excessive heat created stressful conditions
for the developing crop. Seeds treated with Albit (50 mL/t) were successful
in tolerating the drought. Germination was more abundant in the plots treated
with Albit: plant development was accelerated by 2–3 days. A 4–5% increase
in seed germination (to control) was observed. The maximal efficacy was obtained
in the group seeds were treated with Albit and fungicide (i.e., flutriafol
+ thiabendazole): 7% increase in germination (to control). Albit group had
an 11.5–13.4% acceleration in the early plant development (to control).
Albit group had a yield increase of
0.21–0.55 t/ha (4.1–10.9% above control). This effect was similar to the results
reached by using a ñhemical standard (i.e., flutriafol + thiabendazole, +11.1%).
The quality of yield significantly increased in the Albit treatment and Albit
+ fungicide groups (protein content and weight of 1000 grains).
Application recommendations. To achieve the maximum beneficial
effect of Albit, we recommend conducting a pre-sowing seed
treatment and a single treatment during the growing season in
the tillering stage (BBCH 20-30). If seed treatment is conducted, we advise
to use Albit together with treatment fungicides (reduced or full rate); if
crops are fertilized, Albit can be used together with liquid fertilizers or
insecticides. If a common bunt or any other internal infection is present,
Albit must be used together with a chemical seed treatment. The recommended
application rate of Albit is 50 ml/t for pre-sowing seed treatment and 30-50
ml/ha for spraying (working solution rate: 200 L/ha). A higher spraying rate
(50 ml/ha) can be used for plant immunization. In EU trials, a standard for
cereals increased pre-sowing treatment rate of 100 ml/t was proven effective
in targeting the phytotoxic effect of dressing agents and stresses (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. The effect of Albit on growth and development of triticale. Left –
treatment with Albit, right – control. A record yield increase of triticale 42%
was obtained in variant with Albit (Timis, Romania, 2020)