Materials used in this chapter were
published in articles:
• Kudrjavcev, A. (2004) Biocontrol as a basis of phytosanitary stabilization
of flax agriculture. Materials of international scientific and practical
conference Biological plant defense is basis of agroecosystem stabilization (Krasnodar,
29/9/2004-10/10/2004) p. 236-237.
• Kudrjavcev, A., Zaiceva, A., Zlotnikov, A., Zlotnikov, K. (2005) Increase
of quality and yield of flax at using of biostimulant Albit for protection of
flax. Materials of international scientific and practical conference
Problems of increase of flax quality (Torzhok, 2-3/11/2004) p. 157-162.
• Kudrjavcev, A., Zaiceva, A., Zlotnikov, A., Zlotnikov, K. (2004) Increase
of effectiveness and safety of chemical means of plant protection through their
combination with biostimulants. Materials of international scientific
and practical conference Chemical method of plant protection. Status and perspectives
of ecological safety improvement (St. Petersburg, 6-10/12/2004) p. 174-175.,
• Kudrjavcev, A., Zaiceva, A., Zlotnikov, A., Zlotnikov, K. (2005). Biostimulant
Albit as a part of flax protection system. Zemledelie, p. 34-35., Nr 1.,2005.
• Kudrjavcev, A., Zlotnikov, A. (2004-2005) New pesticides for protection
of flax. Agro-XXI. Nr 1-6. p. 25-26., 2004-2005.
Influence of Albit on flax was examined in field trials in Pskov, Tver' and
other regions carried by All-Russia Flax Institute (2002-2004), Pskov regional
plant protection station (2002) and by other institutes and farms; also, there
is long-term experience of practical application of Albit on flax in Vologda
region by Vologda regional plant protection station and in Altaj kraj.
Albit shown a high efficacy and is recommended for application on fiber flax
and on oilseed flax.
According to trials, Albit increased:
- yield of flax straw by 0.08–1.3 t/ha and yield
of flax seeds by 0.04–0.2 t/ha;
- yield of seeds by 0.04–0.14 t/ha;
- germination by 3–7%;
- germination power by 3–6%;
- flax fiber quality (average number of long fiber by 0.5–1.3%,
percentage-number of flax fiber by 26.1–55%);
- stem density by 19.7–37%.
Also, Albit provides control of anthracnose (BE 40–90%), bacterial disease
(BE 77–91%), mottle (BE 78–90%), pasmo disease (BE 70–90%) (Fig. 1). Albit
officially registered in Russia as fungicide against these
diseases. Fungicidal activity of Albit for flax is one of the highest among
all examined agricultural plants;
it observed for disease prevalence of 6-24% and (in this prevalence range)
is able to protect flax not worse than chemical protectants and fungicides.
Fig. 1. Efficacy of Albit against diseases of flax (All-Russia
Flax Institute, Torzhok, Tver' oblast, 2009)
It is recommended to use pre-sowing seed treatment (50-100
mL/t, application rate of working solution – 5-15 L/t) and foliar spay
at the ‘fir-tree’ stage (BBCH 20-30, 50-100 mL/hà, application rate
of working solution – 200-300 L/ha). A higher dose (70-100 mL/t) is applied
against plant diseases. 50 mL/hà is optimal dose for fiber flax, 100 mL/hà
– for oilseed flax. For removal of herbicide stress, Albit may be applied in
tank mix with herbicides and after herbicide application (during 5 days). After
Albit treatment amount of flax flea beetles was decreased.
1 litre of
Albit can be used for treatment of 17.4 hectares of flax.
Presowing seed treatment increases germination and germination
power, provides great plant growth stimulation from very beginning of development,
increase of resistance to unfavorable environmental factors, decrease of stress
after herbicide treatment, increase of yield, improvement of crop quality (percentage
and number of fiber), defends flax from diseases of shoot stage (anthracnose,
mottle, bacterial disease, pasmo disease). At low and moderate level of infection,
Albit can effectively defend plants itself. In case of high infestation one
can use Albit with decreased doses of chemical fungicides. Albit is not a disinfection
agent, but it can increase disinfection effectiveness of chemical means of
plant protection. Addition of adjuvant (NaCMC, 0.2 kg/t) to working solution
used for seed treatment is recommended.
According to tests of All-Russia Flax Institute (2002-2004) on combination
of Albit and fungicidal seed treatment agents, Albit combined
with 50 or 30% decreased application rates of fungicides (based on a.i. carboxin
and thiram) provided effective protection against anthracnose, bacterial
disease and mottle with efficiency of full doses of chemicals or even higher
(BE 84-97%). In field trials (2003), BE of fungicide (a.i.
thiram + tebuconazole, 1.5
kg/t) against anthracnose was the same as that of fungicide (a.i. thiram
+ tebuconazole,1 kg/t + Albit), whereas joint using of fungicide (a.i. thiram)
and Albit increased BE of fungicide (a.i. thiram) against anthracnose from
68.2 to 90.9%. The analogous effect was observed in case of mottle. Decrease
of application dose accompanied with addition of Albit increase effectiveness
of fungicide (a.i. thiram + tebuconazole) and fungicide (a.i. thiram) from
88.2 to 94.1% and from 52.9 to 82.4%, respectively. The most pronounced fungicide-activated
action of Albit was observed in treatment against bacterial disease:
Albit increase BE of fungicide (a.i. thiram + tebuconazole) and fungicide
(a.i. thiram) more than twice, from 44 to 96%, and from 40 to 84%, respectively.
This effect can be explained through ability of Albit to induce resistance
to wide range of both fungous and bacterial infections:
Influence of Albit/fungicide (based on a.i. carboxin + thiram)
combination on flax diseases and yield increases, All-Russia Flax Institute,
||BE against bacterial disease
||BE against anthracnose
||BE against mottle
||Yield increase over control
|Fungicide (full doze)
|Fungicide (halved doze) + Albit
Comparing to purely fungicidal treatment, Albit also increased flax straw
yield by 0.2-0.4 t/ha centners/hectare, and seed yield by 0.04-0.12
In trials of 2004 the regularity of Albit influence found in 2002-2003 was
confirmed. Prevalence of anthracnose, mottle and bacterial disease in control
was 10.5, 19 and 12.5%, respectively. Effectiveness of seed treatment with
fungicide (a.i. thiram + carboxin) and halved dose of fungicide (a.i. thiram
+ carboxin) + Albit against anthracnose and mottle was the same (92-97%),
whereas effectiveness against bacterial disease was almost twice increased
by addition of Albit. Similarly, yield increase rise up from 14% to 31% over
untreated control. Combination with Albit increases average number of long
fiber (parameter of flax fiber quality)
by 11 units over untreated and fungicide-only treated controls (a.i. of fungicide
– thiram + carboxin). Also, fungicide (a.i. thiram + carboxin) in combination
with Albit increased flax fiber percent-number by 65% over control; fungicide
(a.i. thiram + carboxin) only treatment increased this parameter only by 26%
The highest economical efficiency also was detected in variant of halved dose
of chemical protectant + Albit. Net profit in this case was 3180 roubles/hectare,
whereas pure tiram and carboxin based fungicide brought only 1425
roubles/hectare, i.e. more than twice less.
Presowing seed treatment makes 50-60% of total Albit effect, the rest can be
reached through foliar spraying.
Foliar spraying with Albit in stage of ‘firtree’ consolidates
and reinforces stimulating influence of seed treatment, protects plants from
pasmo disease, provides high yield (Fig. 2) and improves flax fiber quality.
Fig. 2. Influence of various methods of Albit application on
flax yield (All-Russia Flax Institute, Torzhok, Tver' oblast, 2009)
As is known, successful cultivation of flax without herbicides is impossible.
However, using of herbicides is also stressful for flax, and leads to whitening,
wilt, growth delay, decrease of fiber quality and general productivity. Application
of Albit together with herbicides or several days after herbicidal treatment
is extremely effective for relieving of herbicidal stress due
to Albit antidote activity; it can radically correct the situation (Fig.
In field trial of All-Russia Flax Institute in 2003, the influence of combined
using of Albit and herbicides on the growth of flax var. A-93 was
studied. Before sowing, seeds were treated with different pesticides (a.i.
thiram + carboxin), Albit, Albit/a.i. thiram + carboxin combination. Independently
on mode of presowing treatment, all plants in ‘firtree’ stage were sprayed
with herbicide mix (a.i. chlorsulfuron potassium salt, 0,005 kg/ha) + a.i.
quizalofop-P-tefuryl, 1 kg/ha) and with the same herbicides + 50 mL/ha of
In all variants where Albit was used, flax productivity was considerably
(by 0.4-0.6 t/ha) higher than in variants without Albit.
This regularity was confirmed in experiments of All-Russia Flax Institute
in 2004, when mix of herbicides (a.i. chlorsulfuron potassium salt and a.i.
chisalofop-P-ethyl, 0.005 kg+1.5 L/ha, respectively) was used for herbicidal
treatment. Addition of Albit to this pesticides increased yield of flax straw
averagely by 0.3-0.6 t/ha. Also, it was found that using of Albit abolished
delay in alternation of flax growth stages
inflicted by herbicides (Fig. 3). For example, Albit-treated flax was actively
blossoming by 8 of July, whereas untreated one exhibited only the very first
flowers (Fig. 4).
Fig. 3. Albit accelerates of phenological stages of flax development
(All-Russia Flax Institute, Torzhok, Tver' oblast, 2004)
Fig. 4. Albit removes of herbicide stress of flax (All-Russia Flax Institute,
Torzhok, Tver' oblast, 2004 ã.)
Analogously, Albit is effective in combination with insecticides against flax
moth, large flax flea beetle, tripses; it recovers plant immunity decreased
by herbicidal and insecticidal treatments. Albit treatment is sufficient for
reliable immunization of flax plants against pasmo disease, but in case of
high infectious environment one can recommend to use Albit with halved dose
of chemical fungicide (for example, fungicide based on a.i. Benomil).
The high antistress and growth stimulating activity of Albit is the reason
for wide application of this product for treatment of flax. Albit has been
used by the biggest flax growing company of Russia, Bijskaja l’njanaja kompanija
(Bijsk flax company) of Altaj kraj, as well as in many flax growing companies
of Russian North. In Nizhnij Novgorod region and in Stavropol’ kraj Albit
is also successfully used for increase of productivity of curly flax (Fig.
Fig. 5. Influence of various methods of Albit application (separately and
in combination with herbicides (a.i. chlorsulfuron potassium salt + a.i. chisalofop-P-ethyl)
on weeds and yield of flax straw (All-Russia Flax Institute, Torzhok, Tver'
In the All-Russia Flax Institute (Torzhok, Tver' oblast, 2006-2009) Albit
was applied on sowings of fiber flax (var. À-93 and Tverskoj).
It was shown that biostimulant increased of flax resistance to pests. Biological
efficacy of Albit against flax flea beetles average was 21.1%. The obtained
data indicates on positive influence of Albit, consisting in immunization and
accelerating of plant restoration after damages by pests.
1 litre of Albit provides
average yield increase of 65 centners of flax straw and 11 centners of flax
For all available reports,
please see corresponding table on Russian