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    Untitled Document

    Soybean

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops and panicled cereals Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures

    Materials used in this chapter were published in the book Biostimulant Albit for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. ј. Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.

    Influence of Albit on soybean was examined in 6 field trials in 3 regions of Russia (Moscow and Voronezh oblasts, Krasnodar krai). Trials were carried out in 2001, 2003 and 2004 by All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, Chapaev pedigree cattle farm, and Kuban breeding farm of Krasnodar krai on following soybean varieties: Mageva, Lan and Luchezarnaya. In last years, Albit has been widely and successfully applied on this culture in agricultural practice of farms of Krasnodar krai and the Russian Far East.

    According to results of the trials, treatment with Albit increased yield of soybean by 3.2 centners/hectare (19.6%). Depending on year, variety and the region, yield increase varied from 1.1 to 7.5 centners/hectare (yield in control plots was 14.1-18.3 centners/hectare). Albit demonstrated the average Biological Efficiency (BE) against Fusarium seedling root rot, Ascochyta leaf and pod spot and Septoria brown spot of 61.5%, 53.3% and 52.1% respectively. Fungicidal activity of Albit was observed at disease prevalence of 6-23% and disease development of 2-5%.

    Besides increase of yield and control of diseases, Albit improves germination and stem length, promotes blossoming, increases weight of 1000 seeds and number of pods per plant. Since there was no essential influence of Albit on number of seeds in pod, ability of Albit to promote setting of new pods and to increase weight of seeds are the main mechanisms of yield increasing.

    It is recommended to conduct presowing seed treatment and one foliar spraying (in budding stage). Contribution of these kinds of treatment to yield increase and disease control is approximately equal. The recommended application rates are 50 ml/tonne, 30-40 ml/hectare. As it was shown in different trials, presowing seed treatment might be done with different amounts of Albit Ц from 40 to 75 ml/tonne. Basing on biological features of the culture, one can conclude that optimal Albit application rate for soybean, as well as for other legumes, is 50 ml/tonne. To obtain maximal effect, in some cases application rate might be increased up to 75 ml/tonne. Combination of Albit and chemical protectant provides maximal protection efficiency against diseases.

    Full treatment of soybean with Albit (presowing treatment + foliar spraying) takes averagely 40 ml of the pesticide, that corresponds to 88 roubles/hectare. Cost of presowing treatment of one tonne of soybean is 110 roubles, cost of foliar spraying of 1 hectare is 88 roubles. Each litre of Albit can be used for treatment of 25 hectares and provides approximatelly 80 centners of additional yield. Average net profit of Albit application from one hectare, according to purchasing price of 2005, is 1352 roubles, profitability is 1070%.

    It is known, that soybean is extremely sensitive to toxic influence of herbicide treatments: they might lead to yield losses up to 50%. This problem can be solved through application of effective antidote such as Albit together with herbicides. In this case, common recommended for foliar sprayings rates of Albit (40 ml/hectare) can be used. Application schedule of Albit can be changed to fit to application recommendations of corresponding herbicides. Since there are no sufficient data on application of Albit mixed with herbicides on soybean yet, the most reasonable technique to relieve herbicidal stress is foliar spraying with Albit 5-7 days after herbicide application.

     



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