Materials used in this chapter were published in the book Biostimulant Albit
for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov,
Ed. Prof. À. Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.
soybean, Albit is applied as antidote for decrease of side
phytotoxic effect of herbicides on crop. In Russia, Albit is officially registered
as a plant growth regulator of soybean. Albit increases field
germination capacity, the number of nitrogen-fixing nodules, accelerates plant
growth and development, improves plant resistance to unfavorable conditions
of the environment, provides defense against plant diseases, decreases the
stress after herbicide treatment. Albit increases soybean yield and improves
the yield quality.
On soybean Albit has been tested since 2001 yr. in field trials of Moscow, Voronezh
oblasts, Krasnodar, Primorsk, Habarovsk territories, Kabardino-Balkaria, USA,
Austria, Belarus and others. Field trials were conducted on var. Vilana, Mageva,
Lan’, Luchezarnaya, Lancetnaya, Ivan Karamanov, Primorskaya 13, 81 and 86 and
others by All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, All-Russia Institute of Biological
Plant Protection, All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding,
Kuban’ State Agrarian University, Far Eastern Institute of Plant Protection,
Far Eastern Research Centre (Agricultural Research Institute of Primorsky krai),
Kokov State Agricultural Academy in Kabardino-Balkaria, Chapaev breeding farm,
Breeding farm Kuban’ in Krasnodar krai and also other institutes and farms. In
last decades Albit has been widely and successfully applied on this culture in
agricultural practice of farms of Central Chernozem Region, Stavropol’ and Krasnodar
territories, Far East, Belarus, Ukraine, Austria, USA etc.
Albit has a proven effect of increasing the resistance of soybean
plants to pests and environmental stress (Ret’man S.V. Soybean
protection / S.V. Ret’man, A.I. Borzykh, T.N. Kislykh et al. // Application
of the journal “Plant Protection and Quarantine”, ¹ 4, 2015 – p. 73 (21). (In
Russian)). According to results of conducted trials, treatment
with Albit increased yield of soybean by 3.2
centners/hectare (19.6%). Depending on year, variety, region and method
of application, yield increase varied from 1.1 to 7.5 centners/hectare.
Albit demonstrated the average biological
efficiency (BE) against diseases: Fusarium seedling root
rot, Ascochyta leaf and pod spot, Septoria brown spot and Cercospora leaf spot
of 61.5%, 53.3% 52.1% and 31%, respectively. Fungicidal activity of Albit was
observed at disease prevalence of 6-22%.
The first recommended seed treatment with Albit
has a positive effect (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Seed treatment with Albit increases germination, accelerates growth
and development of soybean plants in field conditions. Check – control, Treated
– treatment with Albit (Stephen Scott farm, Georgia, USA, 2014)
Albit can be used together with fungicide seed treatments in a pre-sowing
seed treatment procedure. Because of its ability to activate plant immunization
process, Albit enhances the effect of fungicide agents (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Influence of seed treatment with Albit on growth and development
of soybean plants in pot experiments. Albit removes pesticide stress in soybean
plants. Variants: 1 – control, 2 – Albit, 3 – fungicide, 4 – Albit + fungicide
(Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Moscow
Albit is proven to be particularly effective in combination with Rhizobium
seed treatments (nitrogen-fixing bacteria inoculants). The
field experiment of the All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant
Protection (Krasnodar, 2015) compared using a variety of rhizobacteria inoculants
in a pre-sowing seed treatment of soybean. The study also included variables
with Albit added to inoculants. The results showed that the number of nitrogen-fixing
nodules on the roots of soybean var. Selecta significantly increased
with addition of Albit to rhizobacteria inoculants (Fig. 3). Increase in soybeans
yield was also observed (Fig. 4). Adding Albit to all inoculants gained
a highly positive effect.
Fig. 3. The number of nitrogen-fixing nodules
on the roots of soybean var. Selecta
in rhizobacteria-inoculated groups
with and without added Albit (VNIIBZR, Krasnodar, 2015)
Fig. 4. Yield of soybean var. Selecta
with and without adding Albit to rhizobia inoculants (All-Russia
Institute of Biological Plant Protection, Krasnodar, 2015)
The results of the study were consistent with observations of previous years.
Used in recommended rates, Albit enhances the effect of rhizobia inoculants,
but this is not its only benefit. Due to increased virulence of soil rhizobial
population, Albit has a separate effect: it increases the number of
nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean roots (up to 40% above control).
Extra spraying during the growing season increases the nodule numbers to 53%
Fig. 5. The number of nodules
on soybean roots formed on a plant from Albit treatment group
(left), control group (centre), and standard PPP treatment group
(right) (All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection,
It is advisable to increase the rate of Albit to 60-80 ml/t when it is used
together with rhizobacteria inoculants. This is stipulated by the possible
decomposing effect that bacteria can have on Albit. Seeds that undergo treatment
should not be stored for longer than 24 hours before sowing.
Albit increases field germination (by 2-15%) (Fig. 1), weight
of 1000 seeds, the number of pods per plant, accelerates growth of shoots,
increases the number of leaves (Fig. 6), promotes blossoming, increases plant
resistance to drought and herbicide stress.
Fig. 6. Influence of Albit on growth of soybean
plants in the field conditions (All-Russia Research Institute of Legumes
and Groat Crops, Oryol oblast, 2007)
On photos you can see PhD À.V. Lebedev (dealer of LLC Albit in Krasnodar
krai). He demonstrated growth of soybean plants in dry conditions on field
of Ladozhskoe farm (the leading farm for soybean growing in Krasnodar krai)
and in adjacent Chapaev breeding farm (Figs. 7, 8).
Fig 7. À.V. Lebedev (dealer of LLC Albit in Krasnodar
krai) on soybean plot treated with Albit (Chapaev breeding
¹3). Left - plot treated with Albit, right - control. Dealer stands on plot
treated with Albit (2012)
Fig. 8. À.V. Lebedev (dealer of LLC Albit in Krasnodar
krai) with soybean plants grown without Albit (right hand) and with Albit
treatment (left hand) (Ladozhskoe farm, 2012)
After Albit treatment the number îf pods per plant was 108 pcs. Albit
had no effect on number of seeds in pod, however product increased the number
and weight of pods. It is the main mechanism for soybean yield increase after
Albit treatment. Treatment with Albit causes increased photosynthetic activity
due to forming of side shoots and leaves. It promotes forming of increased
number of pods (by 25-35% over control) at the second half of vegetation season
(All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, 2005) (Fig.
Fig. 9. Influence of Albit treatment on dynamics
of growth and development of soybean var. Mageva.
Control (without treatment) is taken as
100% (All-Russia Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding, Moscow
Albit increases yield and also crop quality. Application
of Albit provides 46 kg and 73 kg of extra soybean oil and protein (per hectare),
respectively (according to data of Kuban’ State Agrarian University, 2004-2006).
Profitability of product using was ca. 302%. In field
trials of Kabardino-Balkaria State Agricultural Academy 287 kg of
soybean oil per ha and 492 kg protein per ha were
harvested, profitability was 180.3% (2010-2011).
It is recommended to conduct presowing seed treatment and one foliar
spraying. Contribution of these kinds of treatment to yield increase
and disease control is approximately equal. The recommended application rates
are 50 mL/t (seed treatment) and 40-50 mL/ha (foliar spraying at the stage of
2-3 true leaves, ÂÂÑÍ 12-13 or at the budding stage, ÂBCH 50-60). 50 mL/hà is
applied for plant immunization. Albit may be applied as antidote in tank mix
with herbicides, according to recommendations for last ones.
Complex treatment with Albit (seed treatment
+ foliar spraying) is ca. 50 mL/ha. One liter of
Albit is applied for treatment of 20 hà and provides extra yield (ca. 64 centners of
It is known that soybean is highly subject to toxic influence of herbicide
treatments. These treatments can lead to loss up to half of yield (Ignatenko
V.A. Choice of pesticides for soybean: you can not be wrong / “Pole Avgusta (August’s
Field)”. – 2005. – ¹ 4. – P. 5-6). Many herbicides applied against dicotyledonous
weeds in dry and drought conditions cause severå burns and partial loss of chlorophyll
in leaves. Herbicide stress in soybean plants may cause delay of nodule forming.
This fact does not allow to fix the sufficient amount of nitrogen.
Using of herbicides with effective antidote (Albit)
is the solving of this problem. Adding of Albit to herbicides does not decrease
their efficacy against weeds. At the same time, Albit protects soybean plants
against herbicide stress and provides extra yield in comparison with pure herbicide
treatments (Fig. 10). In addition, Albit is applied in recommended dose for foliar
spraying (40-50 mL/hà).
Fig. 10. Biological and economic efficacy of herbicides
and mix herbicide + Albit in field trials on soybean var. Lancetnaya (All-Russia
Institute of Plant Protection, Voronezh oblast, 2007, 2008)
Albit accelerates soybean
development, passing of phenological growth stages. As a result, effective
vegetation period reduces. Field trials of All-Russia Institute of Vegetable
Selection and Seed Breeding and All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection proved
that Albit helps effective growing of soybean in North regions (Voronezh, Lipeck,
Moscow, Kaluga oblasts). According to data of Dal’AgroChimProm company, in
conditions of Far East antidote effect of Albit is especially noted when using
herbicides based on imazethapyr. For example, in conditions
of Primor’e krai these products prolongated vegetation period of soybean. Fast-ripening
varieties do not have time for forming yield in frost conditions in the middle
of September; in some years frost seeds are 50-60% of yield (Mashchenko
N.V., Koloniitsev F.B. Forming of assortment of pesticides used on soybean
crops in the Priamur region // Materials of All-Russia conference 'Improvement
of registration tests of agrochemicals'. – Ìoscow, 2009). In
these conditions, besides of antidote effect, Albit accelerates plant growth,
allowing to harvest in time.
Application of Albit (40 mL/hà) with herbicide based on imazethapyr (at the
stage of 2 ternate leaves) increases yield of soybean var. Vilana by
6.5 centner/hà (25.5% over variant with using pure herbicides)
(All-Russia Institute of Biological Plant Protection, Krasnodar krai, 2009).
When adding of Albit to herbicide, activity of the last one against weeds
(barnyard grass, Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca
oleracea, Convolvulus arvensis) did not decrease. It is interesting to note
that, Albit had antidote effect when seeds were treated with Albit and
then plants were sprayed with herbicide. In this case Albit seemed to be prepared
plants to herbicide stress. After Albit application in dose 50 mL/t, yield increase
was 23,5% over variant with herbicide control. This fact can not be explained
only from the point of view of growth-stimulating activity of Albit, because
seed treatment with Albit 50 mL/t in variant with “pure control” without herbicide
provided only 11.8% of yield increase.
Both antidote and growth-stimulating effects of Albit are maximal after 2 fold
Albit application (seed treatment + foliar spraying with herbicide). In this
field trial yield increase was 8.7 centner/hà (34.1% to control – pure herbicides).
In field trials Albit was combined with herbicides based on imazethapyr,
ñhlorimuron-ethyl + imazethapyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, water solution, containing
90% isodecyl alcohol + ethoxylated (alphaisodecyl-omega-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene),
quizalofop-P-ethyl, clomazon, imazamox and others. Overall, based on all conducted
trials on soybean, application of Albit with post-emergent herbicides provided
extra yield 3.2 centner/hà (19.1% over variant with pure herbicide
application). Antidote activity of Albit for overcoming of pesticide
stress in soybean plants was shown in 3 methods of Albit application: seed treatment
(before herbicide application), in combination with herbicides, foliar spraying
with Albit 3-7 days after herbicide application.
Anti-stress activity of Albit is also shown in the case of increasing of soybean drought
resistance. Because of increased seed germination, accelerated plant
development, soybean plants better tolerate drought. On biochemical level Albit
increases parameters of drought resistance such as moisture-retaining power,
heat-resistance. It also reduces the intensity of transpiration. In spite of
heat and dry, plants developed normally. It allowed to form yield. For example,
this fact was observed in 2003 and in during the following dry years in farms
of Krasnodar krai. Increase of stress-resistance after Albit
treatment leaded to resistance to manó diseases. For
instance, in field trials of Far Eastern Research Centre (Agricultural Research
Institute) Albit increased plant resistance to stressful environmental factors
in 2012, 2013 and 2016 yrs. In Priamur’e region, in conditions of high infection
level and unfavourable weather conditions, increasing of adaptability and immunity
of crop is a very important for phytosanitary situation. Alternation of drought
periods and cloudburst, high day and low night temperatures are unfavourable
conditions for development of soybean plants, so epiphytotytic development
of diseases (Septoria leaf spot, Cercospora leaf spot, downy mildew, root rots)
may occur. In these conditions seed treatment with Albit var. Ivan Karamanov (50
mL/t) increased germination energy by 6-32%, germination by 3-6.5%, in 2-3
times decreased infestation by Fusarium seedling root rot, bacteriosis, mixed
Cercospora leaf spot and downy mildew diseases. The following treatment
with Albit at the budding-blossoming stages (40-50 mL/hà) increased yield by
14-36% to control. Biological efficacy of Albit against Cercospora leaf spot,
Septoria leaf spot, downy mildew and root rots was 26-36%, 10.5-99%, 45.3%
and 28.5%, respectively. Thus, besides of stimulation of growth and development,
biomass accumulation, increase the number of leaves, Albit also improved phytosanitary
situation in soybean crops even in conditions of intensive and epiphytotytic
development of fungal diseases due to increased immunity to them and physiological
resistance to unfavorable environmental factors. It had a positive effect on
soybean yield and seed quality.
There are more field trials of effective Albit application on soybean.
In field trials of Brest Regional Agricultural Experimental Station of the National
Academy of Sciences (Belarus) pre-treated with rhizobial inoculants soybean seeds
var. Pripyat’ were treated with Albit. This combined application gave
extra yield 6.4–11.3% in 2008, 2009 and 2010 yrs. (15.0–17.1 centner/hà in control).
In farm Alexandrovskij (Ust’-Labinskij region, Krasnodar krai, 2012) yield increase
of soybean var. Tavria of Serbian breading was 10.0% (24.1 centner/hà
in control). On experimental farm Sunbelt Ag Expo (Georgia, USA) after treatment
with Albit pre-treated seeds (with insecticide) of hybrid Syngenta 01 KG 118459
yield increase was 31.0% (yield in control 19.7 centner/hà) (Fig. 11). After
seed treatment of soybean var. Primorskaya 13, 81 and 86 yield
increase was 10.6-16.6% to control (Primorsk krai, 2013-2014).
Fig. 11. Influence of seed treatment and foliar
spraying with Albit on development of root system, the number of formed nodules
and soybean yield (Georgia, USÀ, 2013)
In the following Table, you may see all
reports on performance
of Albit on soybean, available
in English. For all available
reports, please see corresponding table on the Russian
Stephen Scott farm
Sunbelt Ag Exposition
Weigl Thomas farm
Kokov Kabardino-Balkarian State
Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding
Institute of Vegetable Selection and Seed Breeding