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    Untitled Document

    Cucumbers

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops and panicled cereals Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures

    Materials used in this chapter were published in the book: Biostimulant Albit for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. . Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.

    Cucumber is a widely cultivated vegetable plant of the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family. Cucumbers are high in complex organic substances that play an important role in metabolism, stimulate appetite, promote the absorption of food, and improve digestion. Cucumbers consist of 95-97% water and a small amount of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. The remaining 3% are chlorophyll, carotene, vitamins PP, C, and B, macroelements and trace elements, potassium and magnesium. Potassium in cucumbers improves heart and kidney function.

    Albit is used on cucumbers as an antidote (safener) to reduce the phytotoxic effect of pesticides. Albit increases field germination, increases growth and development, increases resistance to adverse environmental conditions, reduces disease damage, increases early yield and total yield, decreases the nitrate content, improves product quality.

    Application method. We recommend conducting a pre-sowing seed treatment and two treatments during the growing season to achieve the maximal beneficial effect. Before sowing, cucumber seeds are soaked in the working solution of Albit with a concentration of 2 ml/L of water for 3 hours. The application rate of Albit is 2 ml/kg of seeds; the working solution rate is 1 L/kg of seeds. We recommend spraying during vegetation in the 2-3 true leaves phase (BBCH 12-13) and 15 days later. The application rate of Albit is 30 ml/ha; the working solution rate is 300 L/ha. After planting the seedlings, we recommend watering the soil with a 1-2 ml/L water solution (this concentrated solution is applied to soil near the roots, not on plants leaves). Two sprays are the minimal requirement for treatments. Sometimes intensive use of chemicals is the case, especially in glasshouse conditions. If this is the case, we recommend using Albit as an antidote (safener) every 1-2 weeks alongside the routine pesticide treatments (up to 10 per growing season) at a working solution rate of 1-2 ml/10 L (or 30-120 ml/ha). Albit can also be applied through drip irrigation: 2 ml/10 L of product is added to the irrigation system and supplied until the final rate of 1 L of Albit per hectare is reached (three times in the first half of the growing season). Similarly, a solution of 1-2 ml/10 L can be used for regular irrigation instead of water (the solution should wet the plants leaves).

    Albit has been used on cucumbers in Russia (Leningradskaya Plant Protection Station, Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Far Eastern Scientific Institute of Agriculture, other institutes and farms), China, Spain, Romania, the USA, and other countries. The tested cucumber varieties include Zozulya, Marinda, Izyashchnyj, Elektron, Atlet, Khabar, Urano, Mastil, Cornistar, Vlaspik, and others.

    In 2001, the effect of Albit on greenhouse-grown cucumbers was tested in the agricultural production cooperative Shushary of the Leningrad Regional Plant Protection Station. Cucumber crops var. Zozulya and Marinda were grown in plastic greenhouses. Crops were sprayed with Albit three times (50 ml/ha), starting at the beginning of flowering. Albit treatments commenced later than recommended (at 2-3 leaves phase). There was a 2.7 kg/m2 increase in the yield of cucumbers var. Zozulya in the Albit group (+34.2% to average 7.9 kg/m2 in control). No significant increase in yield of var. Marinda was noted.

    In 2002, greenhouse-grown cucumbers var. Marinda cucumber were tested at the same production cooperative. Crops were sprayed with Albit four times (100 ml/ha), starting at the beginning of flowering. Treatment did not comply with the approved application recommendations, which affected Albits effectiveness. The yield increase in Albit group was 0.5 kg/m2 (+8.1% to average 6,2 kg/m2 in control).

    In 2001-2003, the Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing in the Moscow Oblast conducted trials on cucumbers var. Izyashchnyj and Elektron. Albit was used in pre-sowing soaking of seeds and three sprayings during the growing season. Seedlings were grown in greenhouses, then planted in open ground. Albit significantly increased the seed germination (up to +12% to control), contributed to a 10-15% increase in the number of female flowers and absence of damage from powdery mildew, increased turgor pressure, improved drought tolerance. Albit increased the yield by avg. 23-26.7% for var. Izyashchnyj and 28% for var. Elektron. The nitrate content in cucumber decreased by avg. 16% (compared to control). When it comes to economic and biological efficiency, the effect of Albit was similar to that of the standard fertilizers with epibrassinolide and Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    In 2006, the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection conducted an trial on glasshouse-grown cucumber hybrid var. Atlet. Albit was applied twice by spraying during the growing season. Results showed a 1.28 kg/m2 increase in yield (+4.2%), with a 288 rate of return.

    In 2016, the Far Eastern Institute of Agriculture evaluated the effectiveness of Albit on cucumbers var. Khabar in the Middle Amur region. The seeds of cucumbers were soaked in Albit solution before sowing and then twice sprayed with Albit during the growing season. Albit facilitated a decrease in the development of downy mildew and plant canker (anthracnose); Albit treatment group had an increased number of vines, healthy green leaves, and a 2.71 t/ha yield increase (+12.6% to control). The marketability of cucumbers reached 95.6%, which was 5.9% higher than in control.

    Albit is effectively used as an antidote (safener) to reduce the phytotoxic effect of pesticides and as an antistressant (stress-relief product) for crops to cope with adverse environmental conditions (drought, frost, etc.). For example, in 2011, Albit stimulated the recovery of cucumbers weakened by high temperatures in greenhouse farms in China (Fig. 1).

    In 2012-2013, the restorative effect of Albit was demonstrated on cucumbers affected by frosts. At farms in China, the frost-damaged crops were treated with Albit twice with a 7-day interval. Plants completely recovered 15 days after the treatment. The yield was 30% higher than the one from other farms that grew cucumbers in similar conditions but without Albit.

    In 2014, on a farm in the same district, the increase in cucumber yield treated with Albit amounted to 7.425 t/ha (+50.1% to control). The ripening period reduced from 15 days to 7-10; cucumbers increased in size; physical characteristics and flavor of cucumbers improved; the powdery mildew infection decreased by 30-40%.

     

    Fig. 1. Albit contributes to the recovery of greenhouse-grown cucumbers after high-temperature damage (Xiaolongma farm, Yongqing County, Hebei province, China, 2011). Untreated area - plants without Albit treatment; Treated area - plants treated with Albit; Treated result - the result of Albit treatment

     

    In 2013, a well-known Spanish company Meristem used Albit on greenhouse-grown cucumbers var. Urano. Crops were sprayed with Albit four times with a 2-week interval. As a result, a 29.6% yield increase was obtained (to 74.7 t/ha in control) (Fig. 2).

     

    Fig. 2. Cucumbers grown with Albit in Spain (Moncada municipality, Valencia, Spain, 2013)

     

    In 2016, in Spain as well, Albit was used on greenhouse-grown cucumbers var. Mastil at the Jose Fernandez Martin farm (Balerma, Almeria). In the adverse conditions of high temperatures and lack of moisture, Albit was used in weekly sprayings, starting from the 4-5 leaf stage. Treatments stimulated above-ground development, increased plant resistance to high temperatures and a lack of moisture, and gained a 50 kg/ha increase in yield (+11.8% to 475 kg/ha in control). Whitefly was a threat to cucumber crops, and a parasitic wasp Encarsia farmosa was used to target it. Albit treatments did not obstruct the auxiliary insects and did not have any negative effect on them.

    In 2014, the Romanian University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in Iasi conducted trials to study the effect of Albit on cucumbers var. Cornistar. Cucumbers were grown in greenhouses with the drip irrigation system. Crops were watered three times with Albit solution at a rate of 1 L/ha. As a result, a 10.247 t/ha yield increase was obtained (+31.6% to control, or 3475 kg of extra yield per liter of Albit).

    In 2014, Albit was tested at the Danford farm (Alabama, USA) on cucumbers grown on the open ground. Albit was used in the pre-sowing seed-soaking treatments and two sprays during the crop growth. A 100% seed germination rate was observed (50% in control), as well as the development of a vigorous root system, accelerated plant development, and a 30% yield increase (Fig. 3).

     

    a
    b

    Fig. 3. a) Albit increases the germination rate and seed vigor in cucumbers var. Vlaspik, promotes root system development; b) Albit accelerates the growth and development of cucumbers. Chek - control, Treated - Albit treatment (Danford farm, Alabama, USA, 2014).

     

    In recent years, viral plant diseases have become increasingly threatening to crops worldwide. Traditional fungicides are not effective against viral diseases. However, these diseases can be targeted by new generation immunizing fungicides (elicitors) such as Albit. The trials at greenhouse farms in Greece demonstrated the protective effectof Albit against the CYSDV virus on cucumbers. Albit treatments suppressed the virus development for 4 to 6 weeks.

    The immunizing, regenerating effect of Albit also allows the product to increase the resistance of vegetables to nematode-induced damage. According to data of the All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia, biological efficiency of Albit against root-knot nematodes after pre-sowing seed treatment of cucumbers was 48.8%. This property of Albit can be explained as follows. It is known that immunizers like Albit that can induce plant resistance to pathogens and stresses can promote cross-resistance to other stresses. It is also established that with Albit plants can quicker recover from mechanical damage.

    The results of trials that tested the effect of Albit on cucumbers are presented in Tables 1 and 2.

     

    Table 1. Results of field trials which studied the effect of Albit on cucumbers

    Country, year

    Place of trials

    Cucumber variety

    Growing conditions

    Albit treatment method, rate

    Yield increase to control

    Other results

    Spain, 2013

    Moncada, Valencia

    Urano

    Glasshouse

    4 sprayings every two weeks, 1 ml/10 L water

    22.1 t/ha (29.6%)

     

    Spain, 2016

    Balerma, Almeria

    Mastil

    Glasshouse

    11 treatments during the growing period starting from the 4-5 leaves stage with 1 ml/10 L solution; working solution rate 500-700 L/ha

    5 t/ha (11.8 %)

    Weekly treatments mixed with regular pesticide treatments during the growing period. The weather conditions of the year were unfavorable: high temperatures and lack of moisture. When growing cucumbers, auxiliary insects (parasitic wasp Encarsia farmosa) were used to fight against whitefly, and Albit treatment did not have a negative effect on them. Plants treated with Albit had a stronger vegetative development. Albit also increased plant resistance to high temperatures and moisture deficit, with a resulting increase in yield

    China, 2011

    Xiaolongma, Yongqing, Hebei

    NDA*

    Open ground

    Spraying (dilution 1:7500 = 1.3 ml/10 L)

    NDA

    Crops were exposed to high temperatures (hot July), due to which the growth ceased. After Albit application, the growth resumed, and harvest exceeded the control group

    China, 2012-2013

    Guangyang, Hebei

    NDA

    Glasshouse

    Two sprayings with 7-day interval (dilution 1:3750 = 2.7 ml/10 L)

    NDA

    Albit was used at low-temperature conditions. A single application was not enough to overcome the consequences of cold. Two applications had a positive effect: despite the cold, plant growth returned to normal

    China, 2012-2013

    Yongqing, Hebei

    NDA

    Glasshouse

    Two and three sprayings with 7-day interval (dilution 1:7500 = 1.3 ml/10 L)

    NDA

    3 applications yielded the maximum effect (cucumber length, harvest frequency, economic efficiency)

    China, 2014

    West Heshunying, Yongqing, Hebei

    NDA

    Glasshouse

    5-6 treatments within 50 days, 80-120 ml/ha. Application every 7-10 days from mid-January to late February. Albit was used in a tank mix with fungicides (to target powdery mildew and gray mold) and liquid fertilizers

    7.43 t/ha (50.1%)

    30-40% decrease in powdery mildew infestation. The flavor characteristics and palatability of the product was much higher than in the groups treated with other growth regulators

    Russia, 2001

    Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing, Moscow Oblast

    Izyashchnyj, Elektron

    Glasshouse, then open ground

    Pre-sowing seed treatment (soaking for 3 hours in a working solution), rate of Albit was 2 g/kg, of working solution - 1 L/kg. Spraying during vegetation in the 2-3 true leaves stage and 15 days later. Rate of use of Albit was 30 g/ha, of working solution - 400 L/ha

    8.1 t/ha (23.1%) for Izyashchnyj variety

    8.1 t/ha (28%) for Elektron variety

    With Albit, seed germination rate significantly increased (2-12% to the control), 10-15% more female flowers formed (than in control), the plants had increased turgor pressure and had higher tolerated for drought. There was practically no powdery mildew damage. The nitrate content in cucumbers var. Izyashchnyj decreased by an average of 16% (to control)

    Russia, 2001

    Leningradskaya Plant Protection Station

    Zozulya, Marinda

    Glasshouse

    Plants were sprayed with Albit (50 ml/ha) 3 times, starting at the beginning of flowering. Albit treatments started later than recommended (2-3 leaves phase)

    27 t/ha (34.2%) for Zozulya variety

     

    Russia, 2002

    Leningradskaya Plant Protection Station

    Marinda

    Glasshouse

    Plants were sprayed with Albit (100 ml/ha) 4 times, starting at the beginning of flowering. This treatment did not follow the approved recommendations for use (30-50 g/ha starting at 2-3 leaves phase)

    5 t/ha (8.1%)

     

    Russia, 2003

    Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing, Moscow Oblast

    Izyashchnyj

    Glasshouse, then open ground

    Pre-sowing seed treatment (soaking for 3 hours in a working solution), rate of Albit was 2 g/kg, of working solution - 1 L/kg. Spraying during vegetation in the 2-3 true leaves phase and 15 days later. Albit rate of use was 30 g/ha, the rate of working solution was 400 L/ha

    10.1 t/ha (26.7%)

    12% increase in seed germination rate; more female flowers formed; the plants had an increased turgor pressure; there was practically no powdery mildew damage

    Russia, 2006

    Agricultural Production Cooperative Teplichny, Lipetsk

    Atlet

    Glasshouse, then open ground

    Two sprayings: at 2-3 leaves stage and 15 days later, before sowing the seedlings into the open ground, 30 ml/ha

    12.8 t/ha (4.2%)

     

    Russia, 2016

    Far Eastern Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Vostochnoye

    Khabar

    Open ground

    2 ml/kg; before sowing, seeds were soaked for 3 hours in a solution with 2 ml/L concentration.
    Crops were sprayed with 1 ml/10 L solution of water: 1st spray in the 3 leaves phase; 2nd spray 15 days later

    2.71 t/ha (12.6%)

    After the 1st treatment (spray), the development of anthracnose (plant canker) in the Albit group was at a 10-30% level (40% in control). After the 2nd treatment, the development was 25-30% (40-50% in control); the development of downy mildew in the Albit group was 15-20% (30% in control). The marketability of cucumbers in the group treated with Albit was 95.6%, which is 5.9% higher than in control. Plants treated with Albit had a greater number of vines and healthy green leaves

    Romania, 2014

    University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iasi

    Cornistar

    Glasshouse

    Drip irrigation with Albit solution. At a concentration of 0.02% (= 2 ml/10 L), Albit was added to the drip irrigation system 3 times during the growing season, each time at a rate of 1 L Albit per ha

    10.25 t/ha (31.6%)

    3475 kg of the extra yield of cucumbers were harvested for each liter of Albit used

    USA, 2014

    Farm Danford, Alabama

    Vlaspik

    Open ground

    2 sprayings (44 ml/ha)

    25%

     

    USA, 2014

    Farm Danford, Alabama

    Vlaspik

    Open ground

    Pre-sowing treatment + two sprayings (133.1 ml/t + 44 ml/ha)

    30%

    100% germination rate with Albit, 50% germination rate in the control

     

    *NDA no data available.

     

     

    Table 2. Trial reports of studies that examined the effectiveness of Albit on cucumbers. The trials in the table are sorted by year in descending order, and within each year, by region in alphabetical order

    Year

    Country

    Region (oblast)

    Research facility/farm

    Report

    1.

    2016

    Spain

    Balerma, Almeria

    Jose Fernandez Martin Farm

    2.

    2014

    Romania

    Iasi County

    University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (Iasi)

    3.

    2014

    USA

    Alabama State

    Danford Farm

    4.

    2014

    China

    Hebei Province, Yongqing County

    West Heshunying
    village

    5.

    2013

    Spain

    Moncada, Valencia

    Meristem Ltd.

    6.

    2012-2013

    China

    Langfang, Guangyang County, and Yongqing County, Hebei Province

    Hongling ZHAO

    Mr. Zhang

    7.

    2011

    China

    Xiaolongma, Yongqing County, Hebei Province

    Xuzhou WU

    8.

    2006

    Russia

    Lipetsk Oblast

    All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection (Teplichny)

    9.

    2003

    Russia

    Moscow Oblast

    Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing

    10.

    2001

    Russia

    Moscow Oblast

    Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing

     

     



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