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    Untitled Document

    Tomatoes

    Cereals Potatoes Maize Flax Sunflower Sugar beet Grain crops and panicled cereals Legumes Fodder crops Vegetables Horticultures and berries Vine Decorative and other cultures

    Materials used in this chapter were published in the book: Biostimulant Albit for increasing yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. . Melkumova. All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.

    Tomato is one of the most popular crops in the world. Tomato has achieved its fame by having high nutritional qualities, wide diversity in varieties, and flexible response to farming practices. Tomato is cultivated in open ground, with or without film covers, in greenhouses, hotbeds, and even balconies and windowsills.

    Tomato crops have exacting requirements for warmth and light and do not tolerate high humidity. Tomato fruits are high in sugars and minerals; they develop exceptional nutritional, flavor, and dietary qualities. Carotenoids (0.8-1.2 mg carotene per 100 g of fresh weight), B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5), folic and ascorbic acids (1545 mg/100 g of fresh weight), organic acids, and acids of high molecular weight are all found in fresh tomatoes. One kilogram of tomatoes contains multiple trace elements: 2680 mg of potassium, 400 mg of chlorine, 270 mg of phosphorus, 140 mg of sulfur, 120 mg of magnesium, 110 mg of calcium, 40 mg of sodium, 6 mg of iron, 1.89 mg of manganese, 0.97 mg of copper.

    Both on open ground and in glasshouses, Albit is used on tomato as an antidote (safener) to reduce the phytotoxic effect of pesticides. Albit increases field germination, stimulates plant growth and development, increases resistance to adverse environmental conditions, relieves pesticide stress, decreases disease damage, increases early yield and overall yield, increases vitamin content and decreases nitrate content in fruit, and improves product quality.

    Application method. We recommend conducting a pre-sowing seed treatment and two treatments during the growing season to achieve the maximal beneficial effect. Before sowing, tomato seeds are soaked in a working solution of Albit with a concentration of 2 ml/L of water for 3 hours. The application rate of Albit is 2 ml/kg of seeds; the working solution rate is 1 L/kg of seeds. We recommend spraying during vegetation in the 2-3 true leaves phase (BBCH 12-13) and 15 days later. The application rate of Albit is 30 ml/ha; the working solution rate is 300 L/ha. After planting the seedlings, we recommend watering the soil with a 1-2 ml/L water solution (this concentrated solution is applied to the soil near roots, not on plants' leaves). Two sprays are the minimal requirement for treatments. Sometimes intensive use of chemicals is the case, especially in glasshouse conditions. If this is the case, we recommend using Albit as an antidote (safener) every 1-2 weeks alongside the routine pesticide treatments (up to 10 per growing season) at a working solution rate of 1-2 ml/10 L (or 30-65 ml/ha). Albit can also be applied through drip irrigation: 2 ml/10 L of product is added to the irrigation system and supplied until the final rate of 1 L of Albit per ha is reached (three times in the first half of the growing season). Similarly, a solution of 1-2 ml/10 L can be used for regular irrigation instead of water (the solution should wet the plants' leaves).

    Since 2001, Albit has been used on tomatoes in Russia (Fig. 1), Greece (Fig. 2), China (Fig. 3), Turkey (Figs. 4-6), Brazil (Fig. 7), Romania, Switzerland, Nigeria, and other countries. Tomato varieties included Dubok, Novichok, Novichok rozovyy, Khabarovsk rozovyy 308, Precos, and others.

     

    Fig. 1. Photographed above, the creator of Albit K. Zlotnikov grows tomatoes in his back garden. Below is a tomato grown by K. Zlotnikov (Pushchino, Moscow Oblast, 2012)

     

    Fig. 2. Tomato crops grown with Albit (Mesara, Crete, Greece, 2019)

     

    In 20012003, Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing carried out trials on tomatoes var. Dubok (Moscow Oblast). Results showed that Albit successfully increased the germination rate and the number of flowers per plant, improved vegetative development, turgor pressure and drought tolerance, and accelerated fruit ripening. Albit treatments increased tomato yield by 7.4 t/ha (+ 27.4% to control), reduced nitrate content by 16%, and increased the vitamin C and beta-carotene content by 14.5 and 21.3%, respectively. The effect of Albit was similar to the effect of standard fertilizers with epibrassinolide and Pseudomonas aureofaciens in terms of economic and biological efficiency.

    Trials of the Astrakhan State University in 2012 examined the effect of Albit on tomatoes (var. Novichok rozovyy) in the open ground. With consideration of the year's arid conditions, results showed that Albit significantly increased drought tolerance and heat resistance of crops, helped reduce moisture deficit, and increased the tissue moisture content during the growing season. With Albit, moisture deficit in leaves during the growing season was 3.4-10.2% lower than in control plants. During the period from the beginning of flowering to full maturation, water content in leaves increased by 62-81 g per 100 g leaf dry-matter content (LDMC). After Albit application, the photosynthetic potential of tomato plants increased by 1.2 million m2 day/ha compared to control plants. The biological efficiency of Albit against powdery mildew was 67%.

    In 2018, we continued testing Albit on tomatoes in the Astrakhan region. During the trials, the agricultural output and yield quality were assessed on tomatoes var. Novichok and Novichok rozovyy. Albit was used for pre-sowing seed treatment (2 ml/kg) and two sprays during the growing season (30 ml/ha). As a result of the trial, yield increased by 21.9 and 23.9% for the two varieties, respectively. The chemical composition of the tomatoes improved as well: there was a 0.25-0.33% increase in sugars, 0.4-0.6% increase in dry matter content, 2.7-3.5 mg % in ascorbic acid (depending on varieties).

    In 2016, Albit was tested on tomatoes var. Khabarovsky rozovyi 308 in the Middle Amur region (Far Eastern Institute of Agriculture). The seeds were soaked before sowing, and two sprays were conducted during the growing season. Albit treatment reduced the disease spread (Alternaria, Septoria leaf spot, late blight), allowing the development of high-quality produce even in the conditions of frequent disease incidence. Yield increase was 1.57 t/ha (+6.7% to control), and the marketability of tomatoes reached +21% to control.

    In 2014, Albit was tested on tomatoes var. Precos at the Romanian University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (Iasi) through drip irrigation in the greenhouses. Tomato crops received three 1 L/ha Albit treatments. As a result, there was an 11.49 t/ha (+38%) yield increase, or 3829 kg of extra yield per each liter of Albit.

    Product trials on tomatoes demonstrate Albits antidote (safener) and stress relief activity when used with pesticides, as well as after application of pesticides. For example, in 2011 in China, tomato crops were severely damaged by a chemical pesticide treatment: marginal leaf burn, change in plant color, and delay in flowering were observed. After the application of Albit, plants recovered, re-acquired a green color, and continued with normal development and flowering. This result was a shining example of the stress-relief (anti-stress) activity of Albit (Fig. 3).

     

    Fig. 3. Stress-relief effect of Albit on tomato crops: plant suffering pesticide damaged (left); plant after spray with Albit (right) (Shandong province, China, 2011)

     

    In 2012, the stress-relief activity of Albit was demonstrated at trials in Switzerland. Despite the unfavorable weather conditions (dry and cold springs, humid summers with abrupt temperature changes) and high infestation level, applying Albit allowed the farm to harvest a good tomato yield.

    In trials conducted in Turkey in 2016 and 2017, Albit reduced pesticide stress (Fig. 4) and increased drought tolerance in tomato crops (Fig. 5).

     

    Fig. 4. Albit reduces pesticidal stress and accelerates flowering and fruit development in tomatoes: control (left), Albit treatment (right) (Fethiye region, Turkey, 2016)

     

    In the same year, Albit was used in the arid conditions of the Bursa region (Turkey) on open ground tomatoes. An increase in yield of 155 kg/ha (+20.8% to control) was obtained (Fig. 5).

     

    Fig. 5. The effect of Albit on growth, development, and yield of open ground tomatoes (near Karajabey, Bursa region, Turkey, 2016)

     

    In 2017, in the Izmir region (Turkey), Albit facilitated a 50 t/ha (+43.4%) increase in tomato yield. Uniform and large fruits formed (Fig. 6); dry matter content increased. Albit eliminated herbicidal and insecticidal stresses altogether (100%).

     

    Fig. 6. Effect of Albit on the quality and marketability of tomato grown in the open ground (near Bergama, Izmir, Turkey, 2017)

     

    In 2018, in Brazil, Albit was used on tomatoes grown in the open ground to reduce the phytotoxic effect of a herbicide that was used by mistake. Albit was applied twice through the drip irrigation system at a rate of 125 ml/ha. Four sprays were conducted at a rate of 62.5 ml/ha. On the 4th day of Albit treatment, the plants' condition already improved, and after three weeks of treatments, all signs of herbicidal stress disappeared. Albit accelerated the growth and development of tomato crops as well (Fig. 7).

    Fig. 7. Albit reduces the phytotoxic effect of the herbicide: control without Albit (left), Albit treatment (right) (Farm Santa Rita, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2018)

     

    By using Albit on tomatoes in Brazil, the farmers rescued the crops damaged by herbicides and harvested a good yield: 11.25 t/ha in the Albit treatment group (+1.25 t/ha or +12.5% to control). Crops treated with Albit also developed greener leaves and many uniform fruits.

    Albit shows high efficiency against late blight of tomatoes. For five years, developers from China have been growing vegetables in greenhouse complexes in the Yaroslavl region. Due to marshy soils, late blight of tomatoes is a severe problem in Yaroslavl area. Large quantities of chemical fungicides, traditionally used by Chinese farmers, could not stop disease development. Using Albit, however, helped to get rid of late blight (spraying method during the growing season). With this helpful quality of Albit, our sales in Yaroslavl have topped a ton per year, which is a high figure for this region.

    In recent years, viral plant diseases have become increasingly threatening to crops worldwide. Traditional fungicides are not effective against viral diseases. However, these diseases can be targeted by new generation immunizing fungicides (elicitors) such as Albit. The trials at greenhouse farms in Greece demonstrated the protective effectof Albit against the tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) on tomatoes. Albit treatments suppressed the virus development for 4 to 6 weeks.

    The immunizing, regenerating effect of Albit also allows the product to increase the resistance of vegetables to nematode-induced damage. According to data of the All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia, biological efficiency of Albit against root-knot nematodes after spraying of tomatoes was 44.9%. This property of Albit can be explained as follows. It is known that immunizers like Albit that can induce plant resistance to pathogens and stresses can promote cross-resistance to other stresses. It is also established that with Albit plants can quicker recover from mechanical damage.

    Recently, our new experimental product Albit-BR was tested on the greenhouse-grown tomatoes of Tula Oblast. Albit-BR radically resolved the late blight problem: the soil pathogen development was entirely suppressed.

    The results of Albit trials on tomatoes are presented in Tables 1 and 2.

     

    Table 1. The results of field trials examining the effectiveness of Albit on tomatoes

    Country, year

    Place of trials

    Tomato variety

    Growing conditions

    Albit treatment method, rate

    Yield increase

    Other results

    Brazil, 2018

    Fazenda Santa Rita, Mogi Guacu, Sao Paulo

    NDA*

    Open ground

    125 ml/ha by irrigation (Albit supplied through the drip irrigation system); repeated process 4 days later; 62.5 ml/ha 9 days later; 62.5 ml/ha by spraying 6 days later; 62.5 ml/ha by spraying 6 days later; 62.5 ml/ha by spraying 9 days later. In total, 500 ml Albit per ha.

    1.25 t/ha (12.5 %)

    Herbicide overuse caused herbicidal stress in crops. Albit was used to relieve stress. The collected yield was of high commercial quality.

    China, 2011

    Yinan county, Shandong province

    NDA

    Open ground

    Spraying following the manufacturers application recommendations

    NDA

    Tomato crops were severely damaged after a chemical pesticide treatment. The damage symptoms included marginal burning of leaves, change in plant color, and delay in flowering. After the application of Albit, crops recovered and newly acquired green color. Normal development and flowering were observed. It was a clear example of Albits anti-stress activity.

    Russia, 2001

    Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing, Moscow Oblast

    Dubok

    Glasshouse, then open ground

    Before sowing, seeds were soaked for 3 hours in the 2 g/L working solution; the rate of Albit was 2 g/kg, the rate of working solution was 1 L/kg. Crops were sprayed in the 2-3 true leaves stage and 15 days later: rate of use of Albit was 30 g/ha; the rate of working solution was 400 L/ha

    7.4 t/ha (27.4%)

    Albit treatments promoted a 16% decrease in the nitrate content, a 14.5% increase in vitamin C content, and a 21.3% increase in beta-carotene content.

    Russia, 2003

    Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing, Moscow Oblast

    Dubok

    Glasshouse, then open ground

    Before sowing, seeds were soaked for 3 hours in the 2 g/L working solution; the rate of Albit was 2 g/kg; the rate of working solution was 1 L/kg. Crops were sprayed in the 2-3 true leaves stage and 15 days later: rate of use of Albit was 30 g/ha; the rate of working solution was 400 L/ha

    4.4 t/ha (15.5%)

     

    Russia, 2012

    Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan

    Novichok rozovyy

    Open ground

    Pre-sowing seed treatment with 2 ml/L water solution; 1 L of Albit per 1 kg of seeds. Spraying at the stage of 2-3 leaves and during the flowering period. The concentration of the solution was 1 ml/10 L of water; concentration of working solution was 400 L/ha

    NDA

    The use of Albit increased the resistance of plants to powdery mildew, together with a 20.6% decrease in damaged plants compared to control. The biological efficiency of Albit was 67%. The moisture deficit in leaves during the growing season was 3.4-10.2% lower than in control. Starting from the beginning of flowering until complete maturation, the water content in leaves increased by 62-81 g per 100 g of leaves' dry weight. After Albit application, the photosynthetic potential of tomato crops increased by 1.2 million m2 day per ha compared to control

    Russia, 2016

    Far Eastern Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Vostochnoye

    Khabarovskiy Rozovyi 308

    Open ground

    Before sowing, seeds were soaked for 3 hours in 2 ml/L solution. Crops were sprayed with the 1 ml/10 L water solution: 1st spray at the stage of 3 leaves; 2nd spray 15 days later

    1.57 t/ha (6.7 %)

    Treating crops with Albit decreased the growth of powdery mildew, Septoria fungus and early blight, promoting the development of key produce qualities of the variety even in the unfavorable crop sustainability conditions

    Russia, 2018

    Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan

    Novichok, Novichok rozovyy

    Open ground

    Pre-sowing seed treatment (2 ml/kg) and two sprayings during the growing period (30 ml/ha)

    0.68 t/ha (21.9%) for Novichok variety
    0.73 t/ha (23.8%) for Novichok rozovyy variety

    The chemical composition of tomatoes has significantly improved: 0.25-0.33% increase in sugars, 0.4-0.6% increase in dry matter content, 2.7-3.5 mg % increase in ascorbic acid (depending on the variety)

    Romania, 2014

    University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iasi

    Precos

    Glasshouse

    Drip irrigation with Albit solution. At a concentration of 0.02% (= 2 ml/10 L), Albit was added to the drip irrigation system 3 times during the growing season, each time at a rate of 1 L Albit per ha

    11.49 t/ha (38.1%)

    3.8 tonnes of extra tomato yield were obtained for each liter of Albit used

    Turkey, 2016

    Karacabey, Bursa

    NDA

    Open ground

    3 sprayings, 40 ml/ha

    15.5 t/ha (20.8%)

    Severe drought

    Turkey, 2017

    Bergama, Izmir

    NDA

    Open ground

    3 sprayings, 40 ml/ha

    50 t/ha (43.5%)

    In arid conditions, Albit relieved the crops from herbicidal and insecticidal stresses, improved product qualities, and increased the amount of dry matter in tomatoes

    Switzerland, 2012

    Dudingen

    NDA

    Open ground

    According to the manufacturers recommendations

    NDA

    Despite the unfavorable weather conditions ( drought and low temperatures in spring, rainy summers, abrupt changes in temperature) and a high level of infestation, crops treated with Albit were not affected by diseases

    *NDA no data available.

     

     

    Table 2. Trial reports of studies that examined the effectiveness of Albit on tomatoes. The trials in the table are sorted by year in descending order, and within each year, by region in alphabetical order

    Year

    Country

    Region (oblast)

    Research facility/farm

    Report

    1.

    2017

    Turkey

    Bergama, Izmir region

     

    2.

    2016

    Turkey

    Karajabey, Bursa region

     

    3.

    2014

    Romania

    Iasi County

    University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (Iasi)

    4.

    2012

    Switzerland

    Dudingen

     

    5.

    2011

    China

    Yinan county, Shandong province

    Shenbao LV

    6.

    2011

    Nigeria

    Abuja

    University of Abuja

    7.

    2009

    Nigeria

    Abuja

    University of Abuja

     

     



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