The following articles examined the effect of Albit on apple
after its incorporation into the apple trees’ plant protection system:
- Ryabchinskaya, T. A., Harchenko, G.L. (2004) Immunization for protection
of Apple against scab. Materials of international conference ‘Biological
plant defense as basis of agricultural ecosystem stabilization’. p. 185-187.,
- Ryabchinskaya, T. A., Harchenko, G.L., Saranceva, N.A. (2005) New biological
activator of disease resistance. Protection and Quarantine of Plants, 4.,
- Yanushevskaya E.B. (2011) The role of Albit in increasing the resistance
of soil microbiocenosis to pesticides. Materials published in E.B. Yanushevskaya,
N.N. Karpun. ‘Plant protection and quarantine,’ 9, pp. 30-31
- Pantiya G.G. (2019) Evaluation of the effectiveness of immunity inducers
in increasing the nonspecific resistance of apple tree to scab. Materials
published in G.G. Pantiya, E.B. Yanushevskaya, E.V. Mikhailova, N.N. Karpun
‘Plant protection and quarantine,’ 7, pp. 33–35
The effect of using Albit on apple trees was tested by research
and trials of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection (VNIIZR,
Voronezh Oblast), All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture (Tambov Oblast),
All-Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops (VNIITSISK,
Sochi), the Institute of Agriculture of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic
of Abkhazia (IAAS), VNNIIViV of Russian Academy of Sciences (Crimea),
Institute for Agricultural Research Kromeriz (Czech Republic), State Plant
and Soil Protection Organization (Hungary). The experiments studied the varieties Sinap
Severny, Pepin Saffron, Zhigulevskoe, Prima, Melrose, Idared, Golden Rangers,
Early Red, Red Chief, Reinette Simirenko. The advantages of using Albit
in apple cultivation have been long noted at local farms of the Krasnodar Territory,
Voronezh and Tula Oblasts. The largest horticultural enterprises of the Central
Black Earth Region and Krasnodar Territory (such as Agronom, Sad-Gigant) successfully
incorporate Albit into their apple-farming practices as well.
On average, the results of the experiments show that Albit treatment
increased the apple yield by 1.43 tonne per hectare (+8.5%
Albit activates growth processes in apple trees. It increases
the surface of assimilation and photosynthetic activity of leaves. According
to VNIIZR (2002) and IAAS of Abkhazia (2016-2017), with Albit, leaf area increases
by 50% or more, and the annual growth of shoots shows a 12-25% increase (averagely).
The average weight of the fruit increases by 4-10%.
Including Albit into the pesticide treatment system for the apple orchard has
a positive effect on apple quality. Harvest of the Crimean Reinette Simirenko (Sady
Alminskaya Doliny LLC, 2019) yielded large amounts of high-quality fruit; mass
concentration of sugars and dry matter content in the fruit increased as well.
Conversely, the concentration of titratable acids in fruit decreased (Fig. 1,
Fig. 1. The effect of including 5 applications of Albit (100 ml/ha) into the plant protection system on the productivity of apple trees of Reinette Simirenko variety in the conditions of the South Coast of Crimea (Gardens of the Alminskaya Valley LLC, VNNIIViV ‘Magarach’ 2019)
Fig. 2. Distribution of apple yield across the quality groups
of fruit after various plant protection treatments (Gardens of the Alminskaya Valley LLC, VNNIIViV ‘Magarach’ 2019)
Annually, we collect a large harvest of high-quality apple fruits
on the experimental plot of Albit LLC (Moscow Oblast) (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. Apple yield on the experimental plot of
Albit LLC (Pushchino Scientific Center, Moscow Oblast, 2020)
Research of the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture
demonstrated that Albit treatment stimulates both the growth potential of plants
(photosynthetic activity) and their ability to resist diseases and stress (catalase
activity). The anti-stress effect of Albit on apple trees
is important because it allows plants to quickly recover from damage (stress).
The stress can be caused by unfavorable weather conditions, frosts, or pesticidal
stress from frequent pesticide treatments (especially from copper-containing
products). Albit is used as an antidote to reduce the phytotoxic
effect of pesticides and has a state registration as an apple tree plant
growth regulator (registered to activate growth processes, increase
resistance to unfavourable environmental conditions and to disease damage,
increase fruit weight, increase yield, improve product quality; when treating
grafts – to improve survival rate, activate growth processes, increase resistance
to unfavorable environmental conditions). Albit demonstrated 51 to 60% biological
efficiency against apple scab (56% on average). Protective
effect of Albit showed at 2-72% of disease spread, and at 1-35% of disease
development. Data from the Czech Republic shows that Albit facilitated a 10%
increase in biological efficiency of fungicides against scab. Preliminary experiments
showed an immunizing effect of Albit against other diseases that target apple
tree. Results of Albit trials on apple proved that in terms of economic and
biological efficiency Albit’s effect was similar to that of products with active
substances such as benomyl, difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin, and flutriafol.
Application method. Albit is used for spraying
trees. The number of treatments can vary from 2 to 5. We recommend applying
Albit during the tight cluster stage (inflorescence forming), at pink bud stage,
at the end of flowering (petal fall) stage, at late fruit set (‘hazelnut’-size),
and at stage-1/-2 fruit development (‘walnut’-size). Extra treatments are
beneficial for immunization to prevent potential disease spread. The recommended
rate of treatment is 100 ml/ha, the rate of working solution is 800-1000
L/ha. For personal use on small farms or yards, we recommend a solution of
1 ml Albit per 10 L of water, with 2-5 L/tree rate.
Application of Albit must be integrated into the plant protection
system that is routinely used on site to protect apple trees from pests and
diseases. Albit should be combined with scheduled pesticide treatments. For
- at tight cluster and pink bud stages, Albit can be used together with insecticides
against beetle, larvae of flower beetle, leaf-mining moths, leafworms, sawflies,
scale insects, etc. and together with fungicides against fruit rot, scab,
powdery mildew. Ñopper-containing fungicides such as copper oxychloride or
Bordeaux liquid are traditionally used at this stage; these fungicides have
an impactful toxic effect on apple plants (burns, growth retardation), and
adding Albit as an active antidote to the working solution can significantly
relieve the negative effect.
- at the end of flowering stage, Albit can be used together with insecticides
against aphids, sawflies, miner moths, leafworms, and with fungicides against
a group of diseases. The use of Albit allows to prevent the toxic effect
of organophosphate insecticides recommended for use at this stage.
- during fruit growth (‘hazelnut’ and ‘walnut’ stages), Albit can be used
together with insecticides against codling moth as an antidote, or together
with fungicides (especially copper-containing) to reduce the pesticide content
Yagodnoye OJSC in Tambov Oblast has been successfully using Albit for
15 years in commercial apple orchards. Yagodnoye use Albit at the
pink bud stage, at early flowering, during fruit set (together with a fungicide),
and at the ‘hazelnut’ stage (together with fungicide and insecticide). Albit
significantly reduces the stress caused by chemical pesticides on apple plants,
and gains high yield (20.1 tonne/ha in 2009)
The timing of applying Albit can be revised, if necessary, in order to combine
it with scheduled chemical/pesticide treatments. In any case, Albit treatments
in the first half of the growing season will guarantee a positive effect on plant
development. The results of using Albit are usually noticeable after two treatments,
and the frequency can be increased after that. The treatments are more effective
the earlier they are applied. For example, using Albit at the green tip stage
will have a more prominent effect than treating already developing fruits. Earlier
treatments immunize plants in advance and create the potential for the accumulation
of products of photosynthesis.
As noted above, good results can be yielded from combining Albit
with fungicides in a tank mix. Especially beneficial will
be the combination with contact inorganic products (in particular, copper-containing
ones), which have a universal toxic effect on a wide range of pathogens, but
at the same time, albeit to a lesser extent, on the apple tree itself. This
stressful effect on the plant can be successfully leveled by Albit. Due to
the immunizing quality of Albit, the effect of the fungicide against pathogens
will be enhanced as well.
With recurring frequent treatments of apple orchards, pesticides
have a harmful effect not only on plants, but also on the soil under them.
Their toxic impact shows in suppressed biological activity of soil microbiome.
Albit, added to the fungicide mix, can reduce this toxic effect. Long-term
experiments of VNIITSISK (Sochi) determined that using chemical pesticides
at the standard recommendations for plant protection reduces the actual biological
activity in soil to 43%, and the potential BA to 36%. In these conditions,
Albit can compensate for the negative effect of pesticide treatments. Albit
increases the actual biological activity by 53%, potential – by 64% (to the
level of natural biocenosis). In addition, Albit shortens the time that soil
microbiome needs to restore to its functional state after the pesticide application.
The rates of fungicide use in apple orchards can be reduced when
chemical fungicides are applied together with Albit. Reducing pesticide pressure
on orchards by reducing fungicide application rates and using bioproducts is
a practice proven effective. In our case, the effectiveness is achieved either
by using a 25–50%-reduced rate of fungicide together with Albit, or by replacing
some of the fungicidal treatments with Albit treatments. For example, the trials
of VNIIS used a 25%-reduced rate of a fungicide based on difenoconazole together
with Albit. Results showed that the biological efficiency of the mix against
scab on leaves and fruits was almost at the level of the full rate of pure
chemical fungicide (standard reference product). In the VNIIZR experiment,
two fungicide treatments (11.05 and 5.06) were replaced by treatment with Albit.
As a result, the overall fungicide protection of the farm did not become diminished.
On the contrary, by the end of the season the least scab-resistant variety Pepin
Saffron in the Albit group had more than two times less scab damage on
fruit (6.6%) than in the group that was treated with standard plant protection
product (13.8%). The yield increased by 10.4-11.6% to the standard group (products
based on difenoconazole, flutriafol, benomil, trifloxystrobin). In addition,
Albit treatment group showed a significant increase in leaf area: increase
of 50% and more; the annual growth of shoots: 12-25% increase; average weight
of fruit: a 4-10% increase.
A field experiment in Czech Republic (2012) showed that using
Albit (100 ml/ha) with a 50%-decreased rate of fungicides gained a 10.9% yield
increase to control. When Albit was used together with intensive fungicides
treatment, the increase in yield was 18.2%. In this group, the profit per hectare
increased almost 17-fold (from 10.8 ˆ to 180 ˆ). Albit also facilitated a 10%
increase in biological efficiency of fungicides against scab.
On intensive-type farms, such as Sady Alminskaya Doliny LLC
(Crimea), Albit was used with a 25%-reduced rate of fungicide three times and
used instead of fungicidal treatments twice. In addition to increased amount
and quality of yield (Fig. 1, 2), Albit treatment groups showed high biological
efficiency against scab on leaves and fruits, and powdery mildew on shoots
and leaves of apple trees. Due to Albit, the decrease in the total fungicidal
rate did not affect the quality of protection against fungal diseases. On top
of that, the farming practice became environmentally friendly with higher health-level
It is important to note that fungicidal action of Albit is based
on immunization. Therefore, Albit is only effective if it is applied early
before any external signs of an infection appear on the plant. If the goal
is to eradicate the
disease, we do not recommend completely replacing chemical fungicides with
Albit or reducing their rates. Here, Albit can only be used to remove the toxic
effect of fungicides applied in full rates.
In considering the fungicidal properties of Albit, it is interesting
to dwell on one more problem. Recently, wilting and drying of shoots, branches,
and sometimes whole apple trees has become a real scourge of the gardens of
the Central Black Earth Region of Russia. Wilting can sometimes persist over
large areas. Subsequently, farming investors cannot be sure of the future of
the apple orchards. Most experts believe the cause of this phenomenon is Monilia
fruit rot (‘monilial burn’) caused by the fungus Monilia cinerea f.
mali Wormald. Bacteria isolated from diseased plants make us consider
the case of bacterial involvement in pathogenesis. High rate of wilting and
scale of damage are similar to viral infections known for the destruction of
entire commercial orchards in the United States. The situation is aggravated
by the low efficiency of fungicides currently on the market against this disease.
Here, Albit can be a potential solution. Albit activates the universal mechanisms
of plant protection against a wide range of infections. It can effectively
immunize the plant against pathogens even if their causative agent is unknown
or not fully understood. Notably, Albit will not be able to fully cure trees
already damaged with Monilia fruit rot, but it can be used to limit the further
spread of the disease. Treatments with effective immunizers, such as Albit,
can activate a nonspecific resistance of plants to a wide range of pathogens.
This way, a deadly damage to the orchard will be prevented. Albit increases
the activity of catalase and, as a result, the ability of apple plants to resist
infection. In this sense, immunization with Albit will be particularly beneficial
during early inflorescence formation and tight cluster stages (since Monilia
fruit rot in the form of conidia mainly affects flowers), and during leaf opening
(ascospores of the fungus usually infect young leaves).
Combining Albit with insecticides has been proven
effective by many trials. This effect is based on the reduction of the insecticide’s
toxic effect on plants, and, as a result, high
yield is maintained. The rate of use of insecticides should not be reduced
when used with Albit.
All-Russian Research Institute for Plant Protection deemed it
beneficial to include Albit in the apple tree protection system to increase
crop productivity and to reduce the harm caused by phytopathogens. Albit allows
to 3-fold decrease the rate of use of chemical fungicides (which is especially
important in growing produce intended for baby nutrition and medical use) and
The results of experiments that studied effectiveness of Albit
on apple are presented in the table below. Studies are sorted by year in descending
order, and by region in alphabetical order within each year.
Institute / Farm
Republic of Abkhazia
Institute of Agriculture of the Academy
of Sciences of the Republic of Abkhazia
State Plant and Soil
Institute for Agricultural Research Kromeriz