Materials used in this chapter were published in book Biostimulant Albit for increasing
yields and protection of agricultures against diseases, A.K. Zlotnikov, Ed. Prof. А. Melkumova.
All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, 2006.
along with sugar beet, is one of the most markedly reacting to Albit cultures.
Depending on conditions, yield increase of sunflower under
Albit influence might vary from 0.11 to 0.55 t/ha (0.34 t/ha
or 27.3 % averagely) over control. Average yield increase in Voronezh oblast
and Krasnodar kraj is 0.45 t/ha, in Saratov oblast is 0.28 t/ha,
in Stavropol kraj is 0.2 t/ha. When using Albit in Romania (farm
"AGRIBAC" SRL, Bacau region, 2016), in spite of severe drought, yield
of sunflower was 3.8 t/ha, while average five-year yield of sunflower
is 1.81 t/ha (Fig. 1).
Sensitivity of Sunflower to Albit has been examined in more than 14 field
trials in more 5 oblasts of Russia (Stavropol and Krasnodar krajs, Voronezh,
Saratov and Lipetsk oblasts and other institutes and farms). Experiments was
carried out in 1999-2004 on Sunflower varieties Gibrid
XF-475, Saratovskij-82, Sanmarin-361, Skorospelyj-87, Stepnoj-81 and Master by
All-Russia Institute of Plant Protection (2002); Agricultural Scientific Institute
of South-East, Saratov regional plant protection station, ZAO Rus of Stavropol
Kraj, Chapaev pedigree cattle farm, Agricultural company Kushchevskoe of Krasnodar
kraj and Agricultural company Grachjevskij of Lipetsk oblast. The product is
also being widely used in Rostov, Volgograd, Lipetsk and Tambov oblasts and
in other oblasts.
Fig. 1. When using Albit in farm "AGRIBAC" SRL (Bacau region,
Romania, 2016) a record yield of sunflower 3.8 t/ha was obtained
Albit increases germination, activates growth and development, increases resistance
to unfavorable climate conditions, increases yield, improves yield quality.
Our product is effective against disease infestation.
Also, Albit accelerates blossoming and maturation of seeds by 6–7 days and
increases (on average):
- germination by 5-11.2%;
- oil output by 22.5%;
- head diameter by 2.2-4.9 cm;
- weight of 1000 seeds by 3-7.6.
In Russia, Albit officially registered as fungicide against
watery soft rot and grey mould rot. Its biological efficiency against dry
rot, watery soft rot and grey mould rot is 62–71, 14–100 and 26–100%, respectively
(67, 55.8 and 66.3% on average). Fungicidal activity of Albit was detected
under disease prevalence of 21–30% and disease development of 2–10%; in this
experimental conditions efficiency of Albit was not worst than that of high-efficient
chemical fungicides based on a.i. iprodion and benomyl. At low infestation
level, BE of Albit against watery soft rot and grey mould rot might reach
100%. According to recently obtained data of All-Russia Institute of Plant
Protection (2005), Albit treatment of sunflower seeds (var. Rodnik)
in combination with twice repeated Albit foliar spraying demonstrated BE against Phomopsis
of 70.3–74.5%, that was just 11% lower than efficiency of specialized system
of chemical defense (based on a.i. Fludioxonyl + fenpropimorph - double spraying).
Maximal efficiency of Albit application can be reached via combination of presowing
seed treatment and foliar sprayings (1-2
fold): first – at the stages
of 4-7 real leaves (BBCH 14-17) and second – at the stage of blossoming
(BBCH 50-65). Recommended application rates are 200 mL/t of seeds (application
rate of working solution 50 L/t), 40 mL/ha (application rate of working
solution 300 L/ha). In most cases, only one foliar spraying will be enough
instead of 2 recommended ones (the first spraying is preferable).
The higher rates should be used at high infestation
of seeds and combined using with chemical protectants. Full complex treatment
of 1 hectare of sunflower field (presowing treatment + 2 foliar sprayings)
takes averagely 82 mL of Albit. 1 litre of Albit can
be used for treatment of 12.2 hectares of sunflower.
Presowing treatment has the highest economical significance. It provides powerful
stimulation in early stages of development that is prerequisite of accelerated
plant growth and high yield. Seed treatment also immunizes against dry rot,
watery soft rot, grey mould rot and Phomopsis stem canker.
According to reports of farmers of Krasnodar kraj, sunflower seed treatment
with Albit is able to reliably protect plants from all possible diseases, but
sometimes, in case of high infectious environment, it is recommended to combine
Albit with halved doses of chemical seed treatment agent (for example, pesticides,
based on a.i. Tiram) (Table 13). Comparing
to pure chemical protectants, using of mixes is more efficient economically
while biological efficiency is the same. Inclusion of Albit in methods of insecticide
seed treatment (based on a.i bifenthrin) against soil pests (for example, wireworms),
is also effective. And, finally, it is possible to use complex treatment with
Albit + insecticide + fungicide +adjuvant. Such treatment provides both stimulation
and defense against insect pests and diseases.
Sunflower seeds can be treated with standard equipment (treatment devices
PS-10A, PSS-5, etc.); application rate in this case is 50L of Albit working
solution/tonne of seeds; sowing should be performed within 24 hours after
treatment. However, maximal effectiveness can be reached with another method:
seeds should be distributed over a polyethylene film or on an asphalted ground
(previously moistened with water), then carefully moistened with the working
solution (with hand-held syringe). In this case, slightly increased amount
of working solution (50 L/t) should be used. Leave the treated seeds on
the ground in a shadow place, in a layer less then 20 cm, and keep 2-3 days
before sowing. With this method Albit penetrates shell and acts at its full
To increase Albit growth stimulating effect by 30-40%, it is reasonable to
use also Albit foliar sprayings. They accelerate blossoming
and seed ripening, help to form more productive head, increase weight of
seeds and oil output, defend against head form of Phomopsis stem canker,
watery soft rot and grey mould rot.
Albit application on sunflower increased oil
content by 9% (oil content in control 43%). The trial was conducted
in drought conditions of Turkey (Edirne region, 2016). Also, trial on sunflower
was conducted in Voronezh Oblast in 2002 and 2007. Climatic conditions of
these years were favorable for sunflower growth. Oil yield per hectare increased
due to increase the total crop yield by 10% vs. standard and by 22.5% vs.
control (All-Russian Research Institute for Plant Protection). Therefore, application of Albit on sunflower in drought conditions promotes to increase of oil content.
The first foliar spraying
with Albit (at the stages of 4-7 real leaves) could be performed together
(herbicidal) weeding. For example, in Voronezh oblast (2004-2005),
addition of Albit to herbicide based on a.i. clethodim increased
yield by 10% due to relieving of herbicidal stress. Foliar
sprays with chemical fungicides can be combined with Albit too; dose of
fungicide in this case can be decreased.
The second foliar spraying also provides plant resistance to watery soft rot
and grey mould rot, stimulates synchronous and productive seed setting in head,
increases seed weight and oil content. Second treatment just improves effect
of the first treatment and can not be used independently.
According to all data presented before, the maximally efficient Albit treatments
for sunflower is seed treatment and foliar sprayings in beginning of development.
On the other hand, as was shown in experiments in Rostov oblast, humates
have pronounced growth stimulating effect being used in second half of sunflower's
development. Thus, for obtaining of maximal effect one can recommend the following
combination of procedures: Albit presowing seed treatment (possibly + foliar
spraying at the stages of 4-7 leaves) + treatment with humates in second half
Albit-dependent acceleration of passing through development stages have a
great significance, because terms of ripening often are critical for obtaining
of good yield (Figs. 2-5). For example, farmers of Tambov oblast
(2003) (according to the data of Tambov plant protection station) thanks to
Albit managed to harvest sunflower before autumn rains, whereas the neighbor
farmers was late. In agricultural company Kushchevskoe of Krasnodar kraj, the
physiological ripeness of seeds of Albit-treated fields come 1 week earlier
than that in control. As practice shows, in the northern regions of the Volgograd,
Saratov and Samara Regions, the early-maturing sunflower hybrids often express
delayed maturing, thus postponing the harvest to the mid-season, or even to the
late-season. Further up north, the period of plant development extends with
the consequent further delay in the maturing of the crop. However, a unique
property of Albit can solve this problem. Albit accelerates the ripening
process and allows to harvest fully formed yield in a shorter time.
Fig. 2. Influence of seed treatment with Albit
on acceleration of growth and development of sunflower seedlings in field
conditions (Bacau, Romania, 2016)
Fig. 3. Influence of Albit on acceleration
of development of sunflower in dry conditions. Right
– treatment with Albit (Konya region, Turkey, 2016)
Fig. 4. After Albit treatment, accelerated growth
and maturation of sunflower are observed (Voronezh oblast, 2007)
Fig. 5. Farmer in the sunflower field.
Sunflower was grown with Albit application (Plovdiv Province, Bulgaria, 2018)
In case of sunflower,
Albit provides on average 1300-3500 roubles of net profit
from 1 hectare (based on all trials conducted in Russia since 1997
to 2015). 1 litre of Albit provides
average yield increase of 41 centners.
In the following Table, you can see all reports on performance
of Albit on sunflower, available in English. For all available
reports, please see corresponding table on Russian
Institute / Farm
Institute at Martonvasar
Slovak University of Agriculture
Slovak University of Agriculture